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Франци

Khal Drogo

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Тема о Францима на овом птф не постоји. Како је у питању народ који не што је у једном времену имао пресудну улогу у европској историји него бјеше и супстрат у етногенези данашњих Француза и Њемаца, народа који ће обликовати и каснију историју и данашњу Европу каква јесте. Па да отворим тему о овом итекако важном народу.
Намјера ми је да се кроз тему сагледамо тај период европске историје и улогу Франала, период самог краја времена Антике и рани средњи вијек, од првог иоле значајног франачког владара Хлодиа половином V вијека, временом династија Меровинга и Каролинга, па до X вијека, када ће се након Верденског споразума 843.године Франачка подијелити на три царства од којих ће свако имати засебан ход кроз европску историју.
Franks_expansion.gif

Временом су наметнули власт над многим другим пост-римским краљевствима и германским народима. Нешто касније, католичка црква је признала франачке владаре као насљеднике старих владара Западног римског царства.
Франци (енгл.википедија овдје) су народ састављен од неколико германских племена. Уједно и прво германско племе које се стално настањује на подручју Римског царства.
Franks

Related ethnic groups
Religion
Languages
Franci
Frankish arms.JPG
Aristocratic Frankish burial items from the Merovingian period
Old Frankish
Frankish paganism, Catholic Christianity
Germanic peoples, French people
The Franks (Latin: Franci or gens Francorum) were a group of Germanic peoples[1] whose name was first mentioned in 3rd-century Roman sources, and associated with tribes between the Lower Rhine and the Ems River, on the edge of the Roman Empire.[2] Later the term was associated with Romanized Germanic dynasties within the collapsing Western Roman Empire, who eventually commanded the whole region between the rivers Loire and Rhine. They imposed power over many other post-Roman kingdoms and Germanic peoples. Still later, Frankish rulers were given recognition by the Catholic Church as successors to the old rulers of the Western Roman Empire.[3][4][5][a]
Although the Frankish name does not appear until the 3rd century, at least some of the original Frankish tribes had long been known to the Romans under their own names, both as allies providing soldiers, and as enemies. The new name first appears when the Romans and their allies were losing control of the Rhine region. The Franks were first reported as working together to raid Roman territory. However, from the beginning the Franks also suffered attacks upon them from outside their frontier area, by the Saxons, for example, and as frontier tribes they desired to move into Roman territory, with which they had had centuries of close contact.
The Germanic tribes which formed the Frankish federation in Late Antiquity are associated with the Weser-Rhine Germanic/Istvaeonic cultural-linguistic grouping.[6][7][8]
Frankish peoples inside Rome's frontier on the Rhine river included the Salian Franks who from their first appearance were permitted to live in Roman territory, and the Ripuarian or Rhineland Franks who, after many attempts, eventually conquered the Roman frontier city of Cologne and took control of the left bank of the Rhine. Later, in a period of factional conflict in the 450s and 460s, Childeric I, a Frank, was one of several military leaders commanding Roman forces with various ethnic affiliations in Roman Gaul (roughly modern France). Childeric and his son Clovis I faced competition from the Roman Aegidius as competitor for the "kingship" of the Franks associated with the Roman Loire forces. (According to Gregory of Tours, Aegidius held the kingship of the Franks for 8 years while Childeric was in exile.) This new type of kingship, perhaps inspired by Alaric I,[9] represents the start of the Merovingian dynasty, which succeeded in conquering most of Gaul in the 6th century, as well as establishing its leadership over all the Frankish kingdoms on the Rhine frontier. It was on the basis of this Merovingian empire that the resurgent Carolingians eventually came to be seen as the new Emperors of Western Europe in 800.
In the High and Late Middle Ages, Western Europeans shared their allegiance to the Roman Catholic Church and worked as allies in the Crusades beyond Europe in the Levant. In 1099, the crusader population of Jerusalem mostly comprised French settlers who, at the time, were still referred to as Franks, and other Europeans such as Spaniards, Germans and Hungarians. French knights made up the bulk of the steady flow of reinforcements throughout the two-hundred-year span of the Crusades, in such a fashion that the Arabs uniformly continued to refer to the crusaders and West Europeans as Franjī caring little whether they really came from France.[10] The French Crusaders also imported the French language into the Levant, making French the base of the lingua franca (litt. "Frankish language") of the Crusader states.[10][11] This has had a lasting impact on names for Western Europeans in many languages.[12][13][14] Western Europe is known alternatively as "Frangistan" to the Persians.[15]
From the beginning the Frankish kingdoms were politically and legally divided between an eastern more Germanic part, and the western part that the Merovingians had founded on Roman soil. The eastern "Frankish" part came to be known as the new "Holy Roman Empire", and was from early times occasionally called "Germany". Within "Frankish" Western Europe itself, it was the original Merovingian or "Salian" Western Frankish kingdom, founded in Roman Gaul and speaking Romance languages, which has continued until today to be referred to as "France" – a name derived directly from the Franks.

Etymology

Main article: Name of the Franks


A 19th century depiction of different Franks (AD 400–600)

The name Franci was not a tribal name, but within a few centuries it had eclipsed the names of the original peoples who constituted them. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm,[16] the name of the Franks has been linked with the English adjective "frank", originally meaning "free".[17] There have also been proposals that Frank comes from the Germanic word for "javelin" (such as in Old English franca or Old Norse frakka).[18] Words in other Germanic languages meaning "fierce", "bold" or "insolent" (German frech, Middle Dutch vrac, Old English frǣc and Old Norwegian frakkr), may also be significant.[19]

Eumenius addressed the Franks in the matter of the execution of Frankish prisoners in the circus at Trier by Constantine I in 306 and certain other measures:[20][21] Latin: Ubi nunc est illa ferocia? Ubi semper infida mobilitas? ("Where now is that ferocity of yours? Where is that ever untrustworthy fickleness?"). Latin: Feroces was used often to describe the Franks.[22] Contemporary definitions of Frankish ethnicity vary both by period and point of view. A formulary written by Marculf about 700 AD described a continuation of national identities within a mixed population when it stated that "all the peoples who dwell [in the official's province], Franks, Romans, Burgundians and those of other nations, live ... according to their law and their custom."[23] Writing in 2009, Professor Christopher Wickham pointed out that "the word 'Frankish' quickly ceased to have an exclusive ethnic connotation. North of the River Loire everyone seems to have been considered a Frank by the mid-7th century at the latest [except Bretons]; Romani [Romans] were essentially the inhabitants of Aquitaine after that".[24]

Mythological origins
Apart from the History of the Franks by Gregory of Tours, two early sources relate the mythological origin of the Franks: a 7th-century work known as the Chronicle of Fredegar and the anonymous Liber Historiae Francorum, written a century later.
Many say that the Franks originally came from Pannonia and first inhabited the banks of the Rhine. Then they crossed the river, marched through Thuringia, and set up in each county district and each city longhaired kings chosen from their foremost and most noble family.
— Gregory of Tours, History of the Franks (6th c. CE)[25]
The author of the Chronicle of Fredegar claimed that the Franks came originally from Troy and quoted the works of Virgil and Hieronymous:
Blessed Jerome has written about the ancient kings of the Franks, whose story was first told by the poet Virgil: their first king was Priam and, after Troy was captured by trickery, they departed. Afterwards they had as king Friga, then they split into two parts, the first going into Macedonia, the second group, which left Asia with Friga were called the Frigii, settled on the banks of the Danube and the Ocean Sea. Again splitting into, two groups, half of them entered Europe with their king Francio. After crossing Europe with their wives and children they occupied the banks of the Rhine and not far from the Rhine began to build the city of "Troy" (Colonia Traiana-Xanten).
— Fredegar, Chronicle of Fredegar (7th c. CE)[25]
According to historian Patrick J. Geary, those two mythological stories are "alike in betraying both the fact that the Franks knew little about their background and that they may have felt some inferiority in comparison with other peoples of antiquity who possessed an ancient name and glorious tradition. (...) Both legends are of course equally fabulous for, even more than most barbarian peoples, the Franks possessed no common history, ancestry, or tradition of a heroic age of migration. Like their Alemannic neighbours, they were by the sixth century a fairly recent creation, a coalition of Rhenish tribal groups who long maintained separate identities and institutions."[26]

The other work, the Liber Historiae Francorum, previously known as Gesta regum Francorum before its republication in 1888 by Bruno Krusch,[27] described how 12,000 Trojans, led by Priam and Antenor, sailed from Troy to the River Don in Russia and on to Pannonia, which is on the River Danube, settling near the Sea of Azov. There they founded a city called Sicambria. (The Sicambri were the most well-known tribe in the Frankish homeland in the time of the early Roman empire, still remembered though defeated and dispersed long before the Frankish name appeared.) The Trojans joined the Roman army in accomplishing the task of driving their enemies into the marshes of Mæotis, for which they received the name of Franks (meaning "savage"). A decade later the Romans killed Priam and drove away Marcomer and Sunno, the sons of Priam and Antenor, and the other Franks.[citation needed]

History
Early history
The major primary sources on the early Franks include the Panegyrici Latini, Ammianus Marcellinus, Claudian, Zosimus, Sidonius Apollinaris and Gregory of Tours. The Franks are first mentioned in the Augustan History, a collection of biographies of the Roman emperors. None of these sources present a detailed list of which tribes or parts of tribes became Frankish, or concerning the politics and history, but to quote James (1988, p. 35):

A Roman marching-song joyfully recorded in a fourth-century source, is associated with the 260s; but the Franks' first appearance in a contemporary source was in 289. [...] The Chamavi were mentioned as a Frankish people as early as 289, the Bructeri from 307, the Chattuarri from 306–315, the Salii or Salians from 357, and the Amsivarii and Tubantes from c. 364–375.
In 288 the emperor Maximian defeated the Salian Franks, Chamavi, Frisians and other Germanic people living along the Rhine and moved them to Germania inferior to provide manpower and prevent the settlement of other Germanic tribes.[28][29] In 292 Constantius, the father of Constantine I [30] defeated the Franks who had settled at the mouth of the Rhine. These were moved to the nearby region of Toxandria.[31] Eumenius mentions Constantius as having "killed, expelled, captured [and] kidnapped" the Franks who had settled there and others who had crossed the Rhine, using the term nationes Franciae for the first time. It seems likely that the term Frank in this first period had a broader meaning, sometimes including coastal Frisians.[32]

The Franks were described in Roman texts both as allies (laeti) and enemies (dediticii). About the year 260 one group of Franks penetrated as far as Tarragona in present-day Spain, where they plagued the region for about a decade before they were subdued and expelled by the Romans. In 287 or 288, the Roman Caesar Maximian forced a Frankish leader Genobaud and his people to surrender without a fight. Maximian then forced the Salians in Toxandria (the present Low Countries) to accept imperial authority, but was not able to follow on this success by reconquering Britain.

The Life of Aurelian, which was possibly written by Vopiscus, mentions that in 328, Frankish raiders were captured by the 6th Legion stationed at Mainz. As a result of this incident, 700 Franks were killed and 300 were sold into slavery.[33][34] Frankish incursions over the Rhine became so frequent that the Romans began to settle the Franks on their borders in order to control them.

The Franks are mentioned in the Tabula Peutingeriana, an atlas of Roman roads. It is a 13th-century copy of a 4th or 5th century document that reflects information from the 3rd century. The Romans knew the shape of Europe, but their knowledge is not evident from the map, which was only a practical guide to the roads to be followed from point to point. In the middle Rhine region of the map, the word Francia is close to a misspelling of Bructeri. Beyond Mainz is Suevia, the country of the Suebi, and beyond that is Alamannia, the country of the Alamanni. Four tribes at the mouth of the Rhine are depicted: the Chauci, the Amsivarii ('Ems dwellers'), the Cherusci and the Chamavi, followed by qui et Pranci ('who are also Franks'). This implies that the Chamavi were considered Franks. The Tabula was probably based on the Orbis Pictus, a map of twenty years' labour commissioned by Augustus and then kept by the Roman's treasury department for the assessment of taxes. It did not survive as such. Information about the imperial divisions of Gaul probably derives from it.


Detail of the Tabula Peutingeriana, showing Francia at the top
Salians
Main article: Salian Franks

The Salians were first mentioned by Ammianus Marcellinus, who described Julian's defeat of "the first Franks of all, those whom custom has called the Salians," in 358.[35][36] Julian allowed the Franks to remain in Texuandria as fœderati within the Empire, having moved there from the Rhine-Maas delta.[37][38] The 5th century Notitia Dignitatum lists a group of soldiers as Salii.

Some decades later, Franks in the same region, possibly the Salians, controlled the River Scheldt and were disrupting transport links to Britain in the English Channel. Although Roman forces managed to pacify them, they failed to expel the Franks, who continued to be feared as pirates.

The Salians are generally seen as the predecessors of the Franks who pushed southwestwards into what is now modern France, who eventually came to be ruled by the Merovingians (see below). This is because when the Merovingian dynasty published the Salian law (Lex Salica) it applied in the Neustrian area from the river Liger (Loire) to the Silva Carbonaria, the western kingdom founded by them outside the original area of Frankish settlement. In the 5th century Franks under Chlodio pushed into Roman lands in and beyond the "Silva Carbonaria" or "Charcoal forest", which ran through the area of modern western Wallonia. The forest was the boundary of the original Salian territories to the north and the more Romanized area to the south in the Roman province of Belgica Secunda (roughly equivalent to what Julius Caesar had long ago called "Belgium"). Chlodio conquered Tournai, Artois, Cambrai, and as far as the Somme river. Chlodio is often seen as an ancestor of the future Merovingian dynasty. Childeric I, who according to Gregory of Tours was a reputed descendant of Chlodio, was later seen as administrative ruler over Roman Belgica Secunda and possibly other areas.[39]

Records of Childeric show him to have been active together with Roman forces in the Loire region, quite far to the south. His descendants came to rule Roman Gaul all the way to there, and this became the Frankish kingdom of Neustria, the basis of what would become medieval France. Childeric's son Clovis I also took control of the more independent Frankish kingdoms east of the Silva Carbonaria and Belgica II. This later became the Frankish kingdom of Austrasia, where the early legal code was referred to as "Ripuarian".

Ripuarians
Main article: Ripuarian Franks


Approximate location of the original Frankish tribes in the 3rd century

The Rhineland Franks who lived near the stretch of the Rhine from roughly Mainz to Duisburg, the region of the city of Cologne, are often considered separately from the Salians, and sometimes in modern texts referred to as Ripuarian Franks. The Ravenna Cosmography suggests that Francia Renensis included the old civitas of the Ubii, in Germania II (Germania Inferior), but also the northern part of Germania I (Germania Superior), including Mainz. Like the Salians they appear in Roman records both as raiders and as contributors to military units. Unlike the Salii, there is no record of when, if ever, the empire officially accepted their residence within the empire. They eventually succeeded to hold the city of Cologne, and at some point seem to have acquired the name Ripuarians, which may have meant "river people". In any case a Merovingian legal code was called the Lex Ribuaria, but it probably applied in all the older Frankish lands, including the original Salian areas.

Jordanes, in Getica mentions the Riparii as auxiliaries of Flavius Aetius during the Battle of Châlons in 451: "Hi enim affuerunt auxiliares: Franci, Sarmatae, Armoriciani, Liticiani, Burgundiones, Saxones, Riparii, Olibriones ..." [40] But these Riparii ("river dwellers") are today not considered to be Ripuarian Franks, but a known military unit based on the river Rhone.[41]

Their territory on both sides of the Rhine became a central part of Merovingian Austrasia, which stretched to include Roman Germania Inferior (later Germania Secunda, which included the original Salian and Ripuarian lands, and roughly equates to medieval Lower Lotharingia) as well as Gallia Belgica Prima (late Roman "Belgium", roughly medieval Upper Lotharingia), and lands on the east bank of the Rhine.

Merovingian kingdom (481–751)
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Main article: Merovingian dynasty


A 6th–7th century necklace of glass and ceramic beads with a central amethyst bead. Similar necklaces have been found in the graves of Frankish women in the Rhineland.


A 6th century bow fibula found in north-eastern France and the Rhineland. They were worn by Frankish noblewomen in pairs at the shoulder or as belt ornaments.

Gregory of Tours (Book II) reported that small Frankish kingdoms existed during the fifth century around Cologne, Tournai, Cambrai and elsewhere. The kingdom of the Merovingians eventually came to dominate the others, possibly because of its association with Roman power structures in northern Gaul, which the Frankish military forces were apparently integrated into to some extent. Aegidius, was originally the magister militum of northern Gaul appointed by Majorian, but after Majorian's death apparently seen as a Roman rebel who relied on Frankish forces. Gregory of Tours reported that Childeric I was exiled for 8 years while Aegidius held the title of "King of the Franks". Eventually Childeric returned and took the same title. Aegidius died in 464 or 465.[42] Childeric and his son Clovis I were both described as rulers of the Roman Province of Belgica Secunda, by its spiritual leader in the time of Clovis, Saint Remigius.

Clovis later defeated the son of Aegidius, Syagrius, in 486 or 487 and then had the Frankish king Chararic imprisoned and executed. A few years later, he killed Ragnachar, the Frankish king of Cambrai, and his brothers. After conquering the Kingdom of Soissons and expelling the Visigoths from southern Gaul at the Battle of Vouillé, he established Frankish hegemony over most of Gaul, excluding Burgundy, Provence and Brittany, which were eventually absorbed by his successors. By the 490s, he had conquered all the Frankish kingdoms to the west of the River Maas except for the Ripuarian Franks and was in a position to make the city of Paris his capital. He became the first king of all Franks in 509, after he had conquered Cologne.

Clovis I divided his realm between his four sons, who united to defeat Burgundy in 534. Internecine feuding occurred during the reigns of the brothers Sigebert I and Chilperic I, which was largely fuelled by the rivalry of their queens, Brunhilda and Fredegunda, and which continued during the reigns of their sons and their grandsons. Three distinct subkingdoms emerged: Austrasia, Neustria and Burgundy, each of which developed independently and sought to exert influence over the others. The influence of the Arnulfing clan of Austrasia ensured that the political centre of gravity in the kingdom gradually shifted eastwards to the Rhineland.

The Frankish realm was reunited in 613 by Chlothar II, the son of Chilperic, who granted his nobles the Edict of Paris in an effort to reduce corruption and reassert his authority. Following the military successes of his son and successor Dagobert I, royal authority rapidly declined under a series of kings, traditionally known as les rois fainéants. After the Battle of Tertry in 687, each mayor of the palace, who had formerly been the king's chief household official, effectively held power until in 751, with the approval of the Pope and the nobility, Pepin the Short deposed the last Merovingian king Childeric III and had himself crowned. This inaugurated a new dynasty, the Carolingians.

Carolingian empire (751–843)
Main article: Carolingian Empire

The unification achieved by the Merovingians ensured the continuation of what has become known as the Carolingian Renaissance. The Carolingian Empire was beset by internecine warfare, but the combination of Frankish rule and Roman Christianity ensured that it was fundamentally united. Frankish government and culture depended very much upon each ruler and his aims and so each region of the empire developed differently. Although a ruler's aims depended upon the political alliances of his family, the leading families of Francia shared the same basic beliefs and ideas of government, which had both Roman and Germanic roots.[citation needed]

The Frankish state consolidated its hold over the majority of western Europe by the end of the 8th century, developing into the Carolingian Empire. With the coronation of their ruler Charlemagne as Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Leo III in 800 AD, he and his successors were recognised as legitimate successors to the emperors of the Western Roman Empire. As such, the Carolingian Empire gradually came to be seen in the West as a continuation of the ancient Roman Empire. This empire would give rise to several successor states, including France, the Holy Roman Empire and Burgundy, though the Frankish identity remained most closely identified with France.

After the death of Charlemagne, his only adult surviving son became Emperor and King Louis the Pious. Following Louis the Pious's death, however, according to Frankish culture and law that demanded equality among all living male adult heirs, the Frankish Empire was now split between Louis' three sons.

Military
Participation in the Roman army
Germanic peoples, including those tribes in the Rhine delta that later became the Franks, are known to have served in the Roman army since the days of Julius Caesar. After the Roman administration collapsed in Gaul in the 260s, the armies under the Germanic Batavian Postumus revolted and proclaimed him emperor and then restored order. From then on, Germanic soldiers in the Roman army, most notably Franks, were promoted from the ranks. A few decades later, the Menapian Carausius created a Batavian–British rump state on Roman soil that was supported by Frankish soldiers and raiders. Frankish soldiers such as Magnentius, Silvanus and Arbitio held command positions in the Roman army during the mid 4th century. From the narrative of Ammianus Marcellinus it is evident that both Frankish and Alamannic tribal armies were organised along Roman lines.

After the invasion of Chlodio, the Roman armies at the Rhine border became a Frankish "franchise" and Franks were known to levy Roman-like troops that were supported by a Roman-like armour and weapons industry. This lasted at least until the days of the scholar Procopius (c. 500 – c. 565), more than a century after the demise of the Western Roman Empire, who wrote describing the former Arborychoi, having merged with the Franks, retaining their legionary organization in the style of their forefathers during Roman times. The Franks under the Merovingians melded Germanic custom with Romanised organisation and several important tactical innovations. Before their conquest of Gaul, the Franks fought primarily as a tribe, unless they were part of a Roman military unit fighting in conjunction with other imperial units.

Military practices of the early Franks
The primary sources for Frankish military custom and armament are Ammianus Marcellinus, Agathias and Procopius, the latter two Eastern Roman historians writing about Frankish intervention in the Gothic War.

Writing of 539, Procopius says:
At this time the Franks, hearing that both the Goths and Romans had suffered severely by the war ... forgetting for the moment their oaths and treaties ... (for this nation in matters of trust is the most treacherous in the world), they straightway gathered to the number of one hundred thousand under the leadership of Theudebert I and marched into Italy: they had a small body of cavalry about their leader, and these were the only ones armed with spears, while all the rest were foot soldiers having neither bows nor spears, but each man carried a sword and shield and one axe. Now the iron head of this weapon was thick and exceedingly sharp on both sides, while the wooden handle was very short. And they are accustomed always to throw these axes at a signal in the first charge and thus to shatter the shields of the enemy and kill the men.[43]
His contemporary, Agathias, who based his own writings upon the tropes laid down by Procopius, says:
The military equipment of this people [the Franks] is very simple ... They do not know the use of the coat of mail or greaves and the majority leave the head uncovered, only a few wear the helmet. They have their chests bare and backs naked to the loins, they cover their thighs with either leather or linen. They do not serve on horseback except in very rare cases. Fighting on foot is both habitual and a national custom and they are proficient in this. At the hip they wear a sword and on the left side their shield is attached. They have neither bows nor slings, no missile weapons except the double edged axe and the angon which they use most often. The angons are spears which are neither very short nor very long. They can be used, if necessary, for throwing like a javelin, and also in hand to hand combat.[44]
While the above quotations have been used as a statement of the military practices of the Frankish nation in the 6th century and have even been extrapolated to the entire period preceding Charles Martel's reforms (early mid-8th century), post-Second World War historiography has emphasised the inherited Roman characteristics of the Frankish military from the date of the beginning of the conquest of Gaul. The Byzantine authors present several contradictions and difficulties. Procopius denies the Franks the use of the spear while Agathias makes it one of their primary weapons. They agree that the Franks were primarily infantrymen, threw axes and carried a sword and shield. Both writers also contradict the authority of Gallic authors of the same general time period (Sidonius Apollinaris and Gregory of Tours) and the archaeological evidence. The Lex Ribuaria, the early 7th century legal code of the Rhineland or Ripuarian Franks, specifies the values of various goods when paying a wergild in kind; whereas a spear and shield were worth only two solidi, a sword and scabbard were valued at seven, a helmet at six, and a "metal tunic" at twelve.[45] Scramasaxes and arrowheads are numerous in Frankish graves even though the Byzantine historians do not assign them to the Franks.

The frontispiece of Gregory's Historia Francorum

The evidence of Gregory and of the Lex Salica implies that the early Franks were a cavalry people. In fact, some modern historians have hypothesised that the Franks possessed so numerous a body of horses that they could use them to plough fields and thus were agriculturally technologically advanced over their neighbours. The Lex Ribuaria specifies that a mare's value was the same as that of an ox or of a shield and spear, two solidi and a stallion seven or the same as a sword and scabbard,[45] which suggests that horses were relatively common. Perhaps the Byzantine writers considered the Frankish horse to be insignificant relative to the Greek cavalry, which is probably accurate.[46]

Merovingian military
Composition and development
The Frankish military establishment incorporated many of the pre-existing Roman institutions in Gaul, especially during and after the conquests of Clovis I in the late 5th and early 6th centuries. Frankish military strategy revolved around the holding and taking of fortified centres (castra) and in general these centres were held by garrisons of milities or laeti, who were former Roman mercenaries of Germanic origin. Throughout Gaul, the descendants of Roman soldiers continued to wear their uniforms and perform their ceremonial duties.

Immediately beneath the Frankish king in the military hierarchy were the leudes, his sworn followers, who were generally 'old soldiers' in service away from court.[47] The king had an elite bodyguard called the truste. Members of the truste often served in centannae, garrison settlements that were established for military and police purposes. The day-to-day bodyguard of the king was made up of antrustiones (senior soldiers who were aristocrats in military service) and pueri (junior soldiers and not aristocrats).[48] All high-ranking men had pueri.

The Frankish military was not composed solely of Franks and Gallo-Romans, but also contained Saxons, Alans, Taifals and Alemanni. After the conquest of Burgundy (534), the well-organised military institutions of that kingdom were integrated into the Frankish realm. Chief among these was the standing army under the command of the Patrician of Burgundy.

In the late 6th century, during the wars instigated by Fredegund and Brunhilda, the Merovingian monarchs introduced a new element into their militaries: the local levy. A levy consisted of all the able-bodied men of a district who were required to report for military service when called upon, similar to conscription. The local levy applied only to a city and its environs. Initially only in certain cities in western Gaul, in Neustria and Aquitaine, did the kings possess the right or power to call up the levy. The commanders of the local levies were always different from the commanders of the urban garrisons. Often the former were commanded by the counts of the districts. A much rarer occurrence was the general levy, which applied to the entire kingdom and included peasants (pauperes and inferiores). General levies could also be made within the still-pagan trans-Rhenish stem duchies on the orders of a monarch. The Saxons, Alemanni and Thuringii all had the institution of the levy and the Frankish monarchs could depend upon their levies until the mid-7th century, when the stem dukes began to sever their ties to the monarchy. Radulf of Thuringia called up the levy for a war against Sigebert III in 640.

Soon the local levy spread to Austrasia and the less Romanised regions of Gaul. On an intermediate level, the kings began calling up territorial levies from the regions of Austrasia (which did not have major cities of Roman origin). All the forms of the levy gradually disappeared, however, in the course of the 7th century after the reign of Dagobert I. Under the so-called rois fainéants, the levies disappeared by mid-century in Austrasia and later in Burgundy and Neustria. Only in Aquitaine, which was fast becoming independent of the central Frankish monarchy, did complex military institutions persist into the 8th century. In the final half of the 7th century and first half of the 8th in Merovingian Gaul, the chief military actors became the lay and ecclesiastical magnates with their bands of armed followers called retainers. The other aspects of the Merovingian military, mostly Roman in origin or innovations of powerful kings, disappeared from the scene by the 8th century.

Strategy, tactics and equipment
Merovingian armies used coats of mail, helmets, shields, lances, swords, bows and arrows and war horses. The armament of private armies resembled those of the Gallo-Roman potentiatores of the late Empire. A strong element of Alanic cavalry settled in Armorica influenced the fighting style of the Bretons down into the 12th century. Local urban levies could be reasonably well-armed and even mounted, but the more general levies were composed of pauperes and inferiores, who were mostly farmers by trade and carried ineffective weapons, such as farming implements. The peoples east of the Rhine – Franks, Saxons and even Wends – who were sometimes called upon to serve, wore rudimentary armour and carried weapons such as spears and axes. Few of these men were mounted.[citation needed]

Merovingian society had a militarised nature. The Franks called annual meetings every Marchfeld (1 March), when the king and his nobles assembled in large open fields and determined their targets for the next campaigning season. The meetings were a show of strength on behalf of the monarch and a way for him to retain loyalty among his troops.[49] In their civil wars, the Merovingian kings concentrated on the holding of fortified places and the use of siege engines. In wars waged against external foes, the objective was typically the acquisition of booty or the enforcement of tribute. Only in the lands beyond the Rhine did the Merovingians seek to extend political control over their neighbours.

Tactically, the Merovingians borrowed heavily from the Romans, especially regarding siege warfare. Their battle tactics were highly flexible and were designed to meet the specific circumstances of a battle. The tactic of subterfuge was employed endlessly. Cavalry formed a large segment of an army[citation needed], but troops readily dismounted to fight on foot. The Merovingians were capable of raising naval forces: the naval campaign waged against the Danes by Theuderic I in 515 involved ocean-worthy ships and rivercraft were used on the Loire, Rhône and Rhine.

Culture
Language
Main article: Frankish language

In a modern linguistic context, the language of the early Franks is variously called "Old Frankish" or "Old Franconian" and refers to the West Germanic dialects of the Franks prior to the advent of the Second Germanic consonant shift, which took place between 600 and 700. After this consonant shift the Frankish dialect diverges, with the dialects that would become modern Dutch not undergoing the consonantal shift, while all others did so to varying degrees and thereby became part of the larger German dialectal domain.[50]

The Frankish language has not been directly attested, apart from a very small number of runic inscriptions found within contemporary Frankish territory such as the Bergakker inscription. The distinction between Old Dutch and Old Frankish is largely negligible, with Old Dutch (also called Old Low Franconian) being the term used to differentiate between the affected and non-affected variants following the aforementioned Second Germanic consonant shift.[51]

A significant amount of Old Frankish vocabulary has been reconstructed by examining early Germanic loanwords found in Old French as well as through comparative reconstruction through Dutch.[52][53] The influence of Old Frankish on contemporary Gallo-Roman vocabulary and phonology, have long been questions of scholarly debate.[54] Frankish influence is thought to include the designations of the four cardinal directions: nord "north", sud "south", est "east" and ouest "west" and at least an additional 1000 stem words.[53]

Although the Franks would eventually conquer all of Gaul, speakers of Old Franconian apparently expanded in sufficient numbers only into northern Gaul to have a linguistic effect. For several centuries, northern Gaul was a bilingual territory (Vulgar Latin and Franconian). The language used in writing, in government and by the Church was Latin. Urban T. Holmes has proposed that a Germanic language continued to be spoken as a second tongue by public officials in western Austrasia and Northern Neustria as late as the 850s, and that it completely disappeared as a spoken language during the 10th century from regions where only French is spoken today.[55]

Art and architecture

A chalice from the Treasure of Gourdon.


The pinnacle of Carolingian architecture: The Palatine chapel at Aachen, Germany.

Main articles: Merovingian art and architecture and Carolingian art

Early Frankish art and architecture belongs to a phase known as Migration Period art, which has left very few remains. The later period is called Carolingian art, or, especially in architecture, pre-Romanesque. Very little Merovingian architecture has been preserved. The earliest churches seem to have been timber-built, with larger examples being of a basilica type. The most completely surviving example, a baptistery in Poitiers, is a building with three apses of a Gallo-Roman style. A number of small baptistries can be seen in Southern France: as these fell out of fashion, they were not updated and have subsequently survived as they were.

Jewelry (such as brooches), weapons (including swords with decorative hilts) and clothing (such as capes and sandals) have been found in a number of grave sites. The grave of Queen Aregund, discovered in 1959, and the Treasure of Gourdon, which was deposited soon after 524, are notable examples. The few Merovingian illuminated manuscripts that have survived, such as the Gelasian Sacramentary, contain a great deal of zoomorphic representations. Such Frankish objects show a greater use of the style and motifs of Late Antiquity and a lesser degree of skill and sophistication in design and manufacture than comparable works from the British Isles. So little has survived, however, that the best quality of work from this period may not be represented.[56]

The objects produced by the main centres of the Carolingian Renaissance, which represent a transformation from that of the earlier period, have survived in far greater quantity. The arts were lavishly funded and encouraged by Charlemagne, using imported artists where necessary, and Carolingian developments were decisive for the future course of Western art. Carolingian illuminated manuscripts and ivory plaques, which have survived in reasonable numbers, approached those of Constantinople in quality. The main surviving monument of Carolingian architecture is the Palatine Chapel in Aachen, which is an impressive and confident adaptation of San Vitale, Ravenna – from where some of the pillars were brought. Many other important buildings existed, such as the monasteries of Centula or St Gall, or the old Cologne Cathedral, since rebuilt. These large structures and complexes made frequent use of towers.[57]

Religion
A sizeable portion of the Frankish aristocracy quickly followed Clovis in converting to Christianity (the Frankish church of the Merovingians). The conversion of all under Frankish rule required a considerable amount of time and effort.

Paganism
Main article: Frankish mythology


Drawing of golden bees or flies that was discovered in the tomb of Childeric I

Echoes of Frankish paganism can be found in the primary sources, but their meaning is not always clear. Interpretations by modern scholars differ greatly, but it is likely that Frankish paganism shared most of the characteristics of other varieties of Germanic paganism. The mythology of the Franks was probably a form of Germanic polytheism. It was highly ritualistic. Many daily activities centred around the multiple deities, chiefest of which may have been the Quinotaur, a water-god from whom the Merovingians were reputed to have derived their ancestry.[58] Most of their gods were linked with local cult centres and their sacred character and power were associated with specific regions, outside of which they were neither worshipped nor feared. Most of the gods were "worldly", possessing form and having connections with specific objects, in contrast to the God of Christianity.[59]

Frankish paganism has been observed in the burial site of Childeric I, where the king's body was found covered in a cloth decorated with numerous bees. There is a likely connection with the bees to the traditional Frankish weapon, the angon (meaning "sting"), from its distinctive spearhead. It is possible that the fleur-de-lis is derived from the angon.

Christianity

Statue in the Basilica of Saint-Remi depicting the baptism of Clovis I by Saint Remi in around 496

Further information: Christianity in Merovingian Gaul and Frankish Church

Some Franks, like the 4th century usurper Silvanus, converted early to Christianity. In 496, Clovis I, who had married a Burgundian Catholic named Clotilda in 493, was baptised by Saint Remi after a decisive victory over the Alemanni at the Battle of Tolbiac. According to Gregory of Tours, over three thousand of his soldiers were baptised with him.[60] Clovis' conversion had a profound effect on the course of European history, for at the time the Franks were the only major Christianised Germanic tribe without a predominantly Arian aristocracy and this led to a naturally amicable relationship between the Catholic Church and the increasingly powerful Franks.

Although many of the Frankish aristocracy quickly followed Clovis in converting to Christianity, the conversion of all his subjects was only achieved after considerable effort and, in some regions, a period of over two centuries.[61] The Chronicle of St. Denis relates that, following Clovis' conversion, a number of pagans who were unhappy with this turn of events rallied around Ragnachar, who had played an important role in Clovis' initial rise to power. Although the text remains unclear as to the precise pretext, Clovis had Ragnachar executed.[62] Remaining pockets of resistance were overcome region by region, primarily due to the work of an expanding network of monasteries.[63]


Gelasian Sacramentary, c. 750

The Merovingian Church was shaped by both internal and external forces. It had to come to terms with an established Gallo-Roman hierarchy that resisted changes to its culture, Christianise pagan sensibilities and suppress their expression, provide a new theological basis for Merovingian forms of kingship deeply rooted in pagan Germanic tradition and accommodate Irish and Anglo-Saxon missionary activities and papal requirements.[64] The Carolingian reformation of monasticism and church-state relations was the culmination of the Frankish Church.

The increasingly wealthy Merovingian elite endowed many monasteries, including that of the Irish missionary Columbanus. The 5th, 6th and 7th centuries saw two major waves of hermitism in the Frankish world, which led to legislation requiring that all monks and hermits follow the Rule of St Benedict.[65] The Church sometimes had an uneasy relationship with the Merovingian kings, whose claim to rule depended on a mystique of royal descent and who tended to revert to the polygamy of their pagan ancestors. Rome encouraged the Franks to slowly replace the Gallican Rite with the Roman rite. When the mayors took over, the Church was supportive and an Emperor crowned by the Pope was much more to their liking.

Laws
As with other Germanic peoples, the laws of the Franks were memorised by "rachimburgs", who were analogous to the lawspeakers of Scandinavia.[66] By the 6th century, when these laws first appeared in written form, two basic legal subdivisions existed: Salian Franks were subject to Salic law and Ripuarian Franks to Ripuarian law. Gallo-Romans south of the River Loire and the clergy remained subject to traditional Roman law.[67] Germanic law was overwhelmingly concerned with the protection of individuals and less concerned with protecting the interests of the state. According to Michel Rouche, "Frankish judges devoted as much care to a case involving the theft of a dog as Roman judges did to cases involving the fiscal responsibility of curiales, or municipal councilors".[68]

Legacy
Further information: Name of the Franks


Carolingian Empire (green) in 814

The term Frank has been used by many of the Eastern Orthodox and Muslim neighbours of medieval Latin Christendom (and beyond, such as in Asia) as a general synonym for a European from Western and Central Europe, areas that followed the Latin rites of Christianity under the authority of the Pope in Rome.[69] Another term with similar use was Latins.

Modern historians often refer to Christians following the Latin rites in the eastern Mediterranean as Franks or Latins, regardless of their country of origin, whereas they use the words Rhomaios and Rûmi ("Roman") for Orthodox Christians. On a number of Greek islands, Catholics are still referred to as Φράγκοι (Frangoi) or "Franks", for instance on Syros, where they are called Φραγκοσυριανοί (Frangosyrianoi). The period of Crusader rule in Greek lands is known to this day as the Frankokratia ("rule of the Franks"). Latin Christians living in the Middle East (particularly in the Levant) are known as Franco-Levantines.

During the Mongol Empire in the 13-14th centuries, the Mongols used the term "Franks" to designate Europeans.[70] The term Frangistan ("Land of the Franks") was used by Muslims to refer to Christian Europe and was commonly used over several centuries in Iran and the Ottoman Empire.

The Chinese called the Portuguese Folangji 佛郎機 ("Franks") in the 1520s at the Battle of Tunmen and Battle of Xicaowan. Some other varieties of Mandarin Chinese pronounced the characters as Fah-lan-ki.
During the reign of Chingtih (Zhengde) (1506), foreigners from the west called Fah-lan-ki (or Franks), who said they had tribute, abruptly entered the Bogue, and by their tremendously loud guns shook the place far and near. This was reported at court, and an order returned to drive them away immediately, and stop the trade.
— The Middle Kingdom: A Survey of the Geography, Government, Education, Social Life, Arts, Religion, &c. of the Chinese Empire and Its Inhabitants, 2 vol. (Wiley & Putnam, 1848)., in Samuel Wells Williams
The Mediterranean Lingua Franca (or "Frankish language") was a pidgin first spoken by 11th century European Christians and Muslims in Mediterranean ports that remained in use until the 19th century.

Examples of derived words include:

In the Thai usage, the word can refer to any European person. When the presence of US soldiers during the Vietnam War placed Thai people in contact with African Americans, they (and people of African ancestry in general) came to be called Farang dam ("Black Farang", ฝรั่งดำ). Such words sometimes also connote things, plants or creatures introduced by Europeans/Franks. For example, in Khmer, môn barang, literally "French Chicken", refers to a turkey and in Thai, Farang is the name both for Europeans and for the guava fruit, introduced by Portuguese traders over 400 years ago. In contemporary Israel, the Yiddish[citation needed] word פרענק (Frenk) has, by a curious etymological development, come to refer to Mizrahi Jews and carries a strong pejorative connotation.

Some linguists (among them Drs. Jan Tent and Paul Geraghty) have suggested that the Samoan and generic Polynesian term for Europeans, Palagi (pronounced Puh-LANG-ee) or Papalagi, might also be cognate, possibly a loan term gathered by early contact between Pacific islanders and Malays.[77]
Њихово име се први пут помиње у римским изворима из III вијека. Дошли су на подручје Римског царства из садашње средишње Немачке и јужне Холандије и населили су северну Галију, где су прихваћени од Римљана као федерати.
The-Rise-of-the-Frankish-Kingdom-and-the-Merovingian-Dynasty.jpg

Ту успостављају државу Франачку, која покрива већину данашње Француске, Белгије, Холандије и западних подручја Њемачке. Тиме су Франци створили историјско језгро из којег ће касније настати модерна Француска, Њемачка, Белгија и Холандија.

По предању краљ Клодвиг (Хлодовех или Кловис како га још помињу) 496.године прелази на ортодоксно хришћанство (ортодоксно у смислу да је вјерно закључцима на никејском сабору 325.године, насупрот аријанства које су тада већ прихватили доминантни германски народи Вандали и Готи), један од најважнијих догађаја у историји Европе раног средњег вијека и који ће одредити будуће процесе а и у доброј мјери обликовати оно што би касније могли назвати западноевропском цивилизацијом.

Послије краља Клодвига, како су Франци дијелили краљевство на све синове, Франачка је под Меровинзима била изложена цијепању и династичким борбама, и то бјеше једно краљевство са доста подкраљевстава, огранака династије Меровинга.
Династија Меровинга је франачким краљевством владала “де јуре“ до 751.године и Хилдерика III.
Но “де факто“ задњи меровиншки краљ који је имао моћ и истински владао бјеше Дагоберт I који је вадао 629-639.године и који је љуте битке водио са моћним словенским краљем Самом. Након њега, стварна моћ је прешла у руке мајордома (начелник двора), краљевске дужности су сведене на церемонијалне и протоколарне, ови Меровинзи након Дагоберта би понекад били названи и краљеви љенштине, а о свим пословима у краљевству бригу је водио и одлуке доносио мајордом.

Посебно моћан мајордом бјеше у другој половини VII и на прелазу VIII вијек Пипин Хересталски, којег је наслиједио његов ванбрачни син (ако је био уопште син) Карло Мартел, још способнији и одважнији, којег насљеђује Пипин III, који ће у договору са папом којем је за узврат поклонио читаву државу (Папинску државу) и још бројне уступке, довршио еру Мероинга, крунисао се краљем 751.године када почиње ера Каролинга.
Још моћнији од Пипина III бјеше његов син, Карло Велики, који шири франачко краљевство, да би га на Божић 25. децембра 800.године папа крунисао за цара Светог римског царства. Та церемонија је Карлу Великом формално признала насљедство над Западним римским царством, Византија се са тиме разумљиво није слагала јер су папе политички ауторитет да то раде заснивале на фалсификованом документу, но хришћански свијет и Европу су ушли у нову еру. Сам Карло Велики је ипак себе чешће звао краљем Франака и Лангобарда.
Карлов насљедник Лудвиг бјеше побожан али не и капацитет оца, дијелове Франачког царства даје на управу својим синовима, а најстаријег сина Лотара I проглашава 823.годне сувладаром. Остала двојица сунова незадовољни започињу рат, који се окончава 843.године Верденским споразумом, којим је Франачка подијељена на три дијела.
О свему овоме, написаће се још која на теми.
 

Khal Drogo

Domaćin
Poruka
3.810
Име и поријекло Франака је обавијено низом легенди и предања. Прихваћено је да су Франци образовани од неколико различитих племена на обалама доње Рајне.
Латински писац Сидоније Аполинар наглашава да "страствено воле рат, боре се до последње капи крви, у победи су окрутни"
Име Франци испрва није било племенско име, али је за неколико вијекова помрачило имена изворних народа који су их конституисали.
Постоји мишљење да је име Франака изведено из придјева који је изворно значио “слободан“. Друго мишљење је да потиче од германске речи за копље.

Први пута се код римских писаца помињу у III вијеку. Забиљежено је да је године 288. цар Максимијан побиједио салијске Франке, Хамаве, Фризијце и друга гермамска племена која су битисала дуж Рајне, те их преселио у Германију под римском влашћу да би обезбиједио људство и спречио насељавање других германских племена. Године 292. године Констанције побјеђује Франке који су се населили на ушћу Рајне.
Франци су у римским текстовима описани и као савезници (laeti) и као непријатељи (dediticii). Око 260. године једна група Франака продрла је до Тарагоне у данашњој Шпанији, гдје су пустошили ту област око деценије док их Римљани нису протјерали.
Око 287. или 288. године римски цар Максимијан приморао је франачког вођу Генобауда и његове саплеменике да се предају без борбе.

Бројни римски извори помињу Франке у IV вијеку, углавном би то били ограничени пљачкашки упади и походи, како би то учестало, Римљани су их почели насељавати са своје стране границе како би их контролисали.

Први вођа салијских Франака који је оставио значајнији траг у историји је Хлодио (овдје)
Chlodio

Chlodio
A King of the Franks
Reign20 years[1]
Diedprobably after 450[2]
IssueMerovech (uncertain, but probable relative)
Full name
Chlodio
FatherTheodemer or Pharamond (uncertain)
Chlodio (d. approx. 450) also Clodio, Clodius, Clodion, Cloio or Chlogio, was a Frankish king who attacked, and apparently then held, Roman-inhabited lands and cities in the Silva Carbonaria forest, now in central Belgium, then Cambrai and Tournai, and reached as far south as the River Somme.
Modern historians believe he was a descendant of the earlier Salian Franks, reported by Roman sources in the 4th century.
He is known from very few records, but Gregory of Tours reported that in his time people believed he was also an ancestor of the Merovingian dynasty.

Ancestry
In later medieval chronicles, several different ancestries were given, naming people known from real Roman history. These pedigrees are considered unreliable today.

The non-contemporary Liber Historiae Francorum says his father was Pharamond, a Frankish King only known from such medieval records. Pharamond in turn was said to be the son of a real Frankish king, known to have fought the Romans, Marcomer.

The Chronicle of Fredegar, on the other hand, makes Chlodio son of Theudemeres, another real Frankish king who Gregory of Tours reported to have been executed with his mother by the Romans.

Attestations
Gregory of Tours (II,9) reported that "Chlogio" (as he spells his name in Latin) attacked from a fort (castrum) named "Dispargum" on the edge of the "Thoringian" land, which is described as being west of the Rhine. One translation of what Gregory wrote, adding some Latin key words in square brackets:

It is commonly said that the Franks came originally from Pannonia and first colonized the banks of the Rhine. Then they crossed the river, marched through Thuringia [Thoringiam transmeasse], and set up in each country district [pagus] and each city [civitas] long-haired kings chosen from the foremost and most noble family of their race. [...] They also say that Clodio, a man of high birth and marked ability among his people, was King of the Franks and that he lived in the castle of Duisberg [Dispargum castrum] in Thuringian territory [in terminum Thoringorum]. In those parts, that is towards the south, the Romans occupied the territory as far as the River Loire. [...] Clodio sent spies to the town of Cambrai. When they discovered all that they needed to know, he himself followed and crushed the Romans and captured the town. He lived there only a short time and then occupied the country up to the Somme. Some say that Merovech, the father of Childeric, was descended from Clodio.[3]
This description of locations does not match the normal medieval and modern "Thuringia", which is far inland and east of the Rhine and Frankish areas.[2][4]

Dispargum has therefore been interpreted many ways, for example possibly as Duisburg on the Rhine itself, or Duisburg near Brussels, or Diest, which is also in Belgium.[4] The latter two proposals would fit the geography well, because they are within striking distance of the Silva Carbonaria, and close to Toxandria, which is known to have been settled by the Salians in the time of Julian the Apostate. It requires "Thoringorum" (genitive case) to be referring to the "Civitas Tungrorum". This matches Gregory's previous mention in the same passage of how the Franks had earlier settled on the banks of the Rhine and then moved into "Thoringia" on the left side of the Rhine.

According to this account, he held power in the northernmost part of still-Romanized Northern Gaul, together with an area further northeast apparently already Frankish.

Two works written after Gregory of Tours, added details which are mostly not considered reliable, but which may contain some facts derived from other sources. These are the Liber Historiae Francorum and the Chronicle of Fredegar. It is the first of these which specifies that Chlodio first pushed west through Roman-inhabited territories of the Silva Carbonaria, a large forested region which ran roughly from Brussels to the Sambre, and then took the Roman city of Turnacum (modern Tournai), before moving south to Cameracum (modern Cambrai). According to Lanting & van der Plicht (2010), the Frankish conquest of Turnacum and Cameracum probably happened in the period 445–450.[5]

In about 428 AD, a marriage party of the Franks of Chlodio was attacked and defeated at a village named Vicus Helena in Artois by Flavius Aëtius, the commander of the Roman army in Gaul.[6] This is known because the future emperor Majorian was present, and this incident was therefore celebrated in the panegyric written by Sidonius Apollinaris for him. The passage describes "Cloio" as having overrun the land of the Atrebates (Artois, a province north of the Somme, and partly between Tournai and Cambrai).[7]

Possible connection to Merovingians
As explained above, Gregory of Tours mentions that "some people said" that Merovech, the ancestor of the 'Merovingian' dynasty, was in the line of Chlodio, although Merovech's son Childeric I is known only from records associating him with Romanized northern Gaul. Only once his son Clovis I took power in that area did he turn to Kings still ruling in more traditionally Frankish areas. According to Gregory's understanding, the Frankish regions had many kings, but they were all part of one specific noble family, including Chlodio. However, according to the Gesta episcoporum Cameracensium, Clovis and his noble-blooded competitor King Ragnachar of Cambrai (the town Chlodio had put under Frankish control) were related not through the male line, but through Clovis's mother, Basina, a "Thuringian" princess whom his father met when exiled from Gaul. Gregory reports that Clovis asked Ragnachar: "Why have you humiliated our family in permitting yourself to be bound? It would have been better for you to die." He then killed him with an axe and told Ricchar, "If you had aided your brother, he would not have been bound", before killing Ricchar in the same way.

A contemporary Roman historian, Priscus writes of having witnessed in Rome, a "lad without down on his cheeks as yet and with fair hair so long that it poured down his shoulders, Aetius had made him his adopted son". Priscus writes that the excuse Attila used for waging war on the Franks was the death of their king and the disagreement of his children over the succession, the elder being allied with Attila and the younger with Aetius. It has been speculated that this Frankish succession dispute may involve the family of Chlodio and Merovech.[8] On the other hand, it has also been concluded that the Franks in this story must be Rhineland Franks, with whom Aëtius had various interactions.[9]
Који је владао у првој половини V вијека, до отприлике 450.године.
Chlodio, King of the Franks.jpg

Истина, подаци о овом владару су оскудни, углавном непоуздани, према једном извјештају, држао је власт у најсевернијем дијелу још увијек романизоване Галије
Отприлике 428. године, Хлодијеве Франке напао је и поразио у једном селу у Галији Флавије Аетиције, тада командант римске војске у Галији. Ту бјеше присутан и будући римски цар па је овај догађај касније опјеван.

Насљедио га је Меровех или Меровинг (овдје)
Merovech

Merovech
A King of the Franks
Victory of King Merovech.png
Merovech victorious in battle
Reignc. 450–458
PredecessorChlodio
SuccessorChilderic I
Bornc. 411
Diedc. 458
IssueChilderic
Full name
Merovech
DynastyMerovingian (presumed founder)
FatherChlodio (uncertain)
Merovech (French: Mérovée, Merowig; Latin: Meroveus; c. 411 – 458)[1] is the semi-legendary founder of the Merovingian dynasty of the Salian Franks, which later became the dominant Frankish tribe. He is proposed to be one of several barbarian warlords and kings that joined forces with the Roman general Aetius against the Huns under Attila at the Battle of the Catalaunian Plains in Gaul in 451. His grand-son Clovis I became the founder of the Frankish kingdom.
The family of Childeric and Clovis, the first Frankish large-scale royal dynasty called themselves Merovingians ("descendants of Meroveus") after him, and this was known to historians in the following centuries, but no more contemporary evidence exists. The most important such written source, Gregory of Tours, recorded that Merovech was said to be descended from Chlodio, a roughly contemporary Frankish warlord who pushed from the Silva Carbonaria in modern central Belgium as far south as the Somme, north of Paris in modern-day France.

Name
The name Merovech is related to Marwig, lit. 'famed fight' (compare modern Dutch mare "news, rumour", vermaard "famous" as well as (ge)vecht "fight" with -vech).[2]

Historical accounts
There is little information about him in the later histories of the Franks. Gregory of Tours only names him once as the father of Childeric I but remained vague about his relationship to Chlodio.[3] The Chronicle of Fredegar recounts that Merovech was born after Chlodio's wife encountered a sea creature while bathing in the sea; according to Fredegar it remained unclear whether Merovech's father was the creature or Chlodio.[4][5] Another theory considers this legend to be the creation of a mythological past needed to back up the fast-rising Frankish rule in Western Europe.[6]

Clodio is said to have been defeated by Flavius Aëtius at Vicus Helena in Artois in 448. Ian S. Wood would therefore place his son somewhere in the second half of the fifth century.[7]

A contemporary Roman historian, Priscus writes of having witnessed in Rome a “lad without down on his cheeks as yet and with fair hair so long that it poured down his shoulders, Aetius had made him his adopted son”. Priscus writes that the excuse Attila used for waging war on the Franks was the death of their king and the disagreement of his children over the succession, the elder being allied with Attila and the younger with Aetius. As Chlodio died just before Attila's invasion, this seems to suggest that Merovech was in fact Chlodio's son.[8]

References in popular culture
The legend about Merovech's conception was adapted in 1982 by Michael Baigent, Richard Leigh and Henry Lincoln in their book The Holy Blood and the Holy Grail, as the seed of a new idea. They hypothesized that this "descended from a fish" legend was actually referring to the concept that the Merovingian line had married into the bloodline of Jesus Christ, since the symbol for early Christians had also been a fish. This theory, with no other basis than the authors' hypothesis, was further popularized in 2003 via Dan Brown's bestselling novel, The Da Vinci Code.[9][10] However, there was no evidence for this claim that Merovech is descended from Jesus. The identity and historicity of Merovech is one of the driving mysteries in The Widow’s Son, second book of Robert Anton Wilson’s The Historical Illuminatus Chronicles, first introducing the fish legend to the reader by having the early Merovingians appear in a vision as a hideous fish creature resembling H. P. Lovecraft’s Deep Ones, before settling on a variation on Holy Blood, Holy Grail which goes a step further by identifying Jesus and Mary Magdalene as the bridegroom and bride in The Alchemical Marriage of Christian Rosycross and Merovech as the titular Widow's Son from Masonic lore and positing that the entire bloodline is descended from alien-human hybrids.[11]
О којем тек постоје оскудни подаци. Помиње се тек у неколико списа, очигледно за живота није учинио нешто важно да би му римски писци или касније франачки хроничари посветили који редак више.

Но по њему је династија добила име, Меровинзи.
Victory of King Merovech.jpg

Своју афирмацију дугује тројици новинара публициста којма је послужио 1982.године као инспирација за књигу “Света крв, свети грал“ (допуњено издање из 1996.године овдје) у којој су Меровеха довели у крвну везу са Исусом Христом лично.
Наводи које су изнијели барем када је тај дио о Меровеху у питању (други наводи, рецимо покољ Катара у XIII вијеку наравно имају покриће) немају покриће у другим историјским изворима, “примићемо их к знању“, за сада без неког осврта, ако тема саживи можда се напише која.
Ова књига послужила је као инпирација за књигу и филм “Де Винчијев код“. Књига бјеше доро прихваћена код публике која воли такво штиво.
 

Khal Drogo

Domaćin
Poruka
3.810
Меровеха (или Меровинга) насљеђује Хилдерик (овдје)
Childeric I

This article is in the category Category:Magistri militum, but no reliable sources are cited to verify its inclusion. Please help by adding references that support its inclusion, or remove the category if none exist. (June 2020) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Childeric I
King of the Salian Franks
CHILDERICI REGIS.jpg
Copy of the signet ring of Childeric I (original stolen in 1831). Inscription CHILDIRICI REGIS
("of Childeric the king").[1] The original was found in his tomb at Tournai (Monnaie de Paris).
Reign458–481
PredecessorMerovech
SuccessorClovis I
Bornc.437 [2]
Diedc. 481[3]
Tournai (present-day Belgium)
BurialTournai (present-day Belgium)
SpouseBasina of Thuringia
Issue
DynastyMerovingian
FatherMerovech
Childeric I (/ˈkɪldərɪk/; French: Childéric; Latin: Childericus; reconstructed Frankish: *Hildirīk;[4] c. 437 – 481 AD) was a Frankish leader in the northern part of imperial Roman Gaul and a member of the Merovingian dynasty, described as a king (Latin rex), both on his Roman-style seal ring, which was buried with him, and in fragmentary later records of his life. He was father of Clovis I, who acquired effective control over all or most Frankish kingdoms, and a significant part of Roman Gaul.

Biography
Childeric's father is recorded by several sources including Gregory of Tours to have been Merovech, whose name is the basis of the Merovingian dynasty.[5] Gregory reports that Merovech was reputed by some to be a descendant of Chlodio who was an earlier Frankish king who had conquered Roman Gaulish areas first in the Silva Carbonaria, then in Tournai, Cambrai and as far south as the Somme. This is roughly the definition of the Roman province of Belgica Secunda (approximately the "Belgium" defined by Julius Caesar centuries earlier, the region stretching from north of Paris to the Flemish coast) and later a letter of Saint Remigius to Childeric's son Clovis I implies that Childeric had been the administrative chief of this Roman province.

In records about specific actions of Childeric himself, he is mainly associated with the Roman military actions around the Loire river, where he appears in records involving the Gallo-Roman general Aegidius. According to Gregory of Tours, Childeric was exiled at some point, the reason being given as Frankish unhappiness with Childeric's debauchery and his seduction of the daughters of his subjects. Childeric spent eight years in exile in "Thuringia" waiting to make a return.[6] In the meantime, according to Gregory, Aegidius himself took up the title of king of the Franks. Upon his return Childeric was joined by the wife of his host, Queen Basina, who bore Childeric his son Clovis.[7]

Guy Halsall connects the story to Roman politics, Aegidius being an appointee of Majorian:
Although this is only one interpretation of the fragmentary sources, an eight-year period ending with Aegidius' death would allow us to associate Childeric's expulsion with Majorian's accession and appointment of Aegidius.[8] ... Majorian's commander on the Loire, Aegidius, refused to accept Severus as emperor. It is possible that, to legitimise his position, he took the title king of the Franks.[9]
Halsall (p. 269) speculates that Childeric probably began a Roman military career in the service of Flavius Aetius who defeated Attila in Gaul, and he points out that much of his military career appears to have played out far from the Frankish homelands. Ulrich Nonn (map p. 37, and pp. 99–100), following his teacher Eugen Ewig, believes that the exile story reflects a real sequence of events whereby Childeric was a leader of "Salian" or "Belgian" Franks based in the Romanized areas conquered by Chlodio, who were allies under the lordship of Aegidius, but eventually able to take over his power when he and his imperial patron died. (Childeric's son Clovis I later fought Aegidius' son Syagrius who was remembered as a King of Romans, and who had control of Soissons in the south of Belgica Secunda.)

In a passage normally considered to have come from a lost collection of annals, Gregory (II.18) gives a sequence of events which are very difficult to interpret. In 463 Childeric and Aegidius successfully repelled the Visigoths of Theodoric II from Orléans on the Loire. After the death of Aegidius soon after, Childeric and a comes ("count") Paul are recorded defending the Loire region from Saxon raiders, who were possibly coordinating with the Goths now under Euric. Childeric and Paul fought Saxons under the command of a leader named "Adovacrius" (sometimes given by modern authors in either an Anglo-Saxon spelling form, Eadwacer, or in a spelling the same as used for his contemporary the future King of Italy Odoacer, with whom he is sometimes equated). The origin of these "Saxons" is however unclear, and they are described as being based upon islands somewhere in the Loire region.


Detail of golden bees with garnet insets

Golden bee or fly jewelry from the tomb of Childeric I in Tournai. Drawn by Jacob van Werden and engraved by Cornelis Galle the Younger

Soon after this passage, Gregory of Tours (II.19) reports that Childeric coordinated with "Odovacrius", this time normally assumed to be the King of Italy, against Allemanni who had entered Italy. While some authors interpret these Allemani to be Alans, a people established in the Loire region in this period, there is no consensus on this, because the reference in this case is not apparently to events near the Loire.

Marriage, children, and death
Gregory of Tours, in his History of the Franks, mentions several siblings of Clovis within his narrative, apparently thus children of Childeric:
  1. Clovis I (died 511), whose mother was Basina.
  2. Audofleda, Queen of the Ostrogoths, wife of Theodoric the Great. Gregory III.31 also mentions their daughter Amalasuntha.
  3. Lanthechild. Gregory II.31 mentions she had been an Arian but converted to Catholicism with Clovis.
  4. Albofleda (died approximately 500). Gregory II.31 mentions that she died soon after being baptized with Clovis.
Childeric is generally considered to have died in 481 or 482 based on Gregory's reports that his son Clovis died in 511 and ruled 30 years.[10]

Tomb
Childeric's tomb was discovered in 1653[11] not far from the 12th-century church of Saint-Brice in Tournai, now in Belgium.[12] Numerous precious objects were found, including jewels of gold and garnet cloisonné, gold coins, a gold bull's head, and a ring with the king's name inscribed. Some 300 golden winged insects (usually viewed as bees or cicadas) were also found which had been placed on the king's cloak.[11] Archduke Leopold William, governor of the Southern Netherlands (today's Belgium), had the find published in Latin. The treasure went first to the Habsburgs in Vienna, then as a gift to King Louis XIV of France, who was not impressed with the treasure and stored it in the royal library, which became the Bibliothèque Nationale de France during the Revolution. Napoleon was more impressed with Childeric's bees and when he was looking for a heraldic symbol to trump the Bourbon fleur-de-lys, he settled on Childeric's bees as symbols of the French Empire.

On the night of November 5–6, 1831, the treasure of Childeric was among 80 kg of treasure stolen from the Library and melted down for the gold. A few pieces were retrieved from where they had been hidden in the Seine, including two of the bees. The record of the treasure, however, now exists only in the fine engravings made at the time of its discovery and in some reproductions made for the Habsburgs.[13]
Изузетно способан, енергичан вођа са пуно врлина.
childeric-i-7d32f6f0-f3e1-48b0-a893-17416dd9792-resize-750.jpeg

Григорије, бискуп из Тоура и историчар из VI вијека за Хилдерика у својој историји (овдје) пише да је Метовехов син, но постоји и мишљење да је син Хлодија.
У записима о одређеним Хилдериковим дјелима, углавном је повезан са римским војним акцијама око ријеке Лоаре.
Према Григорију, Хилдерик је у неком тренутку прогнан. Поред врлина, бјеше незгодан у пићу и није могао обуздати своју страст према женама и разузданост, насртао је на кћерке и рођаке својих генерала и најближих сарадника, на што су одговорили протјервањем.
Предање каже да је оставио пола новчића најбољем пријатељу рекавши му ако му икад опросте и пожеле да се врати, да му пошаље половину кованице.
Овдје је важно нагласити да краљеве и код германских народа и иначе вође код других народа у раном средњем вијеку не треба поистовјећивати са краљевима у позном средњем вијеку или у новијим временима када би били везани за териториј и краљевство којим владају. Тада су то били лидери народа који би често био у покрету. Под способним лидером, краљем, племе би јачало и интегрисало друга племена која би тражила заштиту моћног вође, под неспособним лидером племе би се расипало и не ријетко утопило у друго племе. Зато би се под способним лидером као што бјеше у том времену Гајзерик код Вандала, његово племе бројчано увећало неколико пута.
Елем, након осам година прогонства и када се под новим лидерима франачко племе почело осипати, опростили су Хилдерику, и свари су опет почеле ићи у позитивном смјеру за Франке.
Постоји наравно и друго мишљење о разлогу Хилдериковог прогонства, и да иза свега стоји римска политика тадашњег војног заповједника Галије Егидија. Који се опет у преврау након убиства цара Маријана 461.године побунио против Рицимера који је стаојао иза преврата, отприлике након тог преврата и убиства цара, завршава и Хилдериково прогонство, а убрзо ће и сам Егидије 464. или 465. скончати.
По једном савременом енглеском историчару Хилдерик је заправо већ дио живота провео као војник у служби Рима далеко од Франака и да је тако правио своју каријеру.
Како год, по окончању прогона Хилдерик са Егидијем око 463.године успјешно одбија нападе Визигота под Теодориком II из правца Орлеана. Послије Егидијеве смрти убрзо након тога, Хилдерик брани успјешно своје области од саксонских и готских упада.
Након тога кординисући своје акције са Одоакаром (које се узгред приписује да је срушио Западно римско царство) , сада већ краљем Италије, окренуо се против Алемана (по неким историчарима ради се Аланима) који су упали у Италију.
Map of the Frankish Kingdoms AD 481-511.jpg

Франци су под Хилдериком ојачали, наслиједиће га још успјешнији насљедник.
 

Khal Drogo

Domaćin
Poruka
3.810
Клодвиг (Хлодовех или Кловис) који је владао од 481 до 511.године бјеше један од најзначајнијих франачким владара под којим Франачка почиње свој стварни успон (овдје)
Clovis I

King of the Salian Franks
King of the Franks
Clovis I
Saint Remy baptise Clovis détail (cropped).jpg
Baptism of Clovis, ivory book cover from c. 870
Reignc. 509 – 27 November 511
Reign481 – c. 509
PredecessorChilderic I
Bornc. 466
Tournai, Roman Empire (present-day Belgium)
Died27 November 511 (aged about 45)
Paris, Francia
BurialOriginally St. Genevieve Church; now Saint-Denis Basilica
SpouseClotilde
Issue
DynastyMerovingian
FatherChilderic I
MotherBasina of Thuringia
ReligionInitially Frankish paganism, but converted to Chalcedonian Christianity
Campaigns of Clovis I

Clovis (Latin: Chlodovechus; reconstructed Frankish: *Hlodowig;[1] c. 466 – 27 November 511)[2] was the first king of the Franks to unite all of the Frankish tribes under one ruler, changing the form of leadership from a group of royal chieftains to rule by a single king and ensuring that the kingship was passed down to his heirs.[3] He is considered to have been the founder of the Merovingian dynasty, which ruled the Frankish kingdom for the next two centuries.

Clovis succeeded his father, Childeric I, as a king of Salian Franks within the Roman empire in 481, and eventually came to rule an area extending from what is now the southern Netherlands to northern France, corresponding in Roman terms to Gallia Belgica (northern Gaul). At the Battle of Soissons (486) he established his military dominance of the rump state of the fragmenting Western Roman Empire which was then under the command of Syagrius. By the time of his death in either 511 or 513, Clovis had conquered several smaller Frankish tribes in the northeast of Gaul or modern day France. Clovis also conquered the Alemanni tribes in eastern Gaul, and the Visigothic kingdom of Aquitania in the southwest. These campaigns had added significantly to Clovis's domains, and established his dynasty as a major political and military presence in western europe.

Clovis is important in the historiography of France as "the first king of what would become France".[4]

Clovis is also significant due to his conversion to Catholicism in 496, largely at the behest of his wife, Clotilde, who would later be venerated as a saint for this act, celebrated today in both the Roman Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodox Church. Clovis was baptized on Christmas Day in 508.[5] The adoption by Clovis of Catholicism (as opposed to the Arianism of most other Germanic tribes) led to widespread conversion among the Frankish peoples; to religious unification across what is now modern-day France, Belgium and Germany; three centuries later, to Charlemagne's alliance with the Bishop of Rome; and in the middle of the 10th century under Otto I the Great, to the consequent birth of the early Holy Roman Empire.

Name

Based on the attested forms, the original name is reconstructed in Frankish as *Hlodowig, composed of the elements hlod ("fame, glory") and wig ("combat, battle").[1]

It is at the origin of the French given name Louis (variant Ludovic), borne by 18 kings of France, via the Latinized form Hludovicus (variants Ludhovicus, Lodhuvicus, Chlodovicus).[1] In Middle Dutch, a Franconian language closely related to Frankish, the name was rendered as Lodewijch (modern Dutch Lodewijk).[6] In modern German, the name became Ludwig (although the king himself is named Chlodwig in German); in Spanish, Luis; in Italian, Luigi; and in English, Lewis.

Background

Clovis was the son of Childeric I, a Merovingian king of the Salian Franks, and Basina, a Thuringian princess. It was his supposed ancestor, Merovich, for which his Merovingian dynasty is named. Clovis succeeded his father to become king at the age of 15 in 481, as deduced from Gregory of Tours placing the Battle of Tolbiac (Zülpich) in the fifteenth year of Clovis's reign.

Numerous small Frankish petty kingdoms existed during the 5th century. The Salian Franks were the first known Frankish tribe that settled with official Roman permission within the empire, first in Batavia in the Rhine-Maas delta, and then in 375 in Toxandria, roughly the current province of North Brabant in the Netherlands and parts of neighbouring Belgian provinces of Antwerp and Limburg in current Belgium. This put them in the north part of the Roman civitas Tungrorum, with Romanized population still dominant south of the military highway Boulogne-Cologne. Later, Chlodio seems to have attacked westwards from this area to take control of the Roman populations in Tournai, then southwards to Artois, and Cambrai, eventually controlling an area stretching to the Somme river.

Childeric I, Clovis's father, was reputed to be a relative of Chlodio, and was known as the king of the Franks that fought as an army within northern Gaul. In 463 he fought in conjunction with Aegidius, the magister militum of northern Gaul, to defeat the Visigoths in Orléans. Childeric died in 481 and was buried in Tournai; Clovis succeeded him as king, aged just 15. Historians believe that Childeric and Clovis were both commanders of the Roman military in the Province of Belgica Secunda and were subordinate to the magister militum.[7] The Franks of Tournai came to dominate their neighbours, initially aided by the association with Aegidius.[8]

The death of Flavius Aetius in 454 led to the decline of imperial power in the Gaul; leaving the Visigoths and the Burgundians compete for predominance in the area. The part of Gaul still under Roman control emerged as a kingdom under Syagrius, Aegidius' son.[9]

Early reign (481–491)
Road to Soissons

See also: Battle of Soissons (486)

The ruler of Tournai died in 481 and was succeeded by his sixteen-year-old son, Clovis. His band of warriors probably numbered no more than half a thousand. In 486 he began his efforts to expand the realm by allying himself with his relative, Ragnachar, regulus of Cambrai[10] and another Frankish regulus, Chalaric. Together the triumvirate marched against Syagrius and met the Gallo-Roman commander at Soissons. During the battle Chalaric betrayed his comrades by refusing to take part in the fighting.[11] Despite the betrayal, the Franks landed a decisive victory, forcing Syagrius to flee to the court of Alaric II.[10] This battle is viewed as bringing about the end of the rump state of the Western Roman Empire outside of Italy.[12] Following the battle, Clovis invaded the traitor Chararic's territory and was able to imprison him and his son.[11]

Taming Gaul

See also: Frankish-Thuringian campaign (491)


Conquests of Clovis between 481 and 511

Prior to the battle, Clovis did not enjoy the support of the Gallo-Roman clergy, hence he proceeded to pillage the Roman territory, including the churches. The Bishop of Reims requested Clovis return everything taken from the Church of Reims, and, as the young king aspired to establish cordial relationships with the clergy, he returned a valuable ewer taken from the church.[13] Despite his position, some Roman cities refused to yield to the Franks, namely Verdun‒which surrendered after a brief siege‒and Paris, which stubbornly resisted a few years, perhaps as many as five.[10] He made Paris his capital[14] and established an abbey dedicated to Saints Peter and Paul on the south bank of the Seine.[15]

Clovis came to the realisation that he wouldn't be able to rule Gaul without the help of the clergy and aimed to please the clergy by taking a Catholic wife.[13] He also integrated many of Syagrius' units into his own army. The Roman kingdom was probably under Clovis' control by 491, because in the same year Clovis successfully moved against a small number of Thuringians in the eastern Gaul, near the Burgundian border.[16]

Middle reign (492–506)
Barbarian bonding

See also: Audofleda

Around 493 AD, he secured an alliance with the Ostrogoths through the marriage of his sister Audofleda to their king, Theodoric the Great.[14] In the same year, the neighboring King of the Burgundians was slain by his brother, Gundobad; bringing civil strife to that kingdom. He proceeded to drown his sister-in-law and force his niece, Chrona, into a convent; another niece, Clotilde, fled to the court of her other uncle. Finding himself in a precarious position this uncle, Godegisel, decided to ally himself to Clovis by marrying his exiled niece to the Frankish king.[17]

Assault of the Alamanni

See also: Battle of Tolbiac


Clovis I leading the Franks to victory in the Battle of Tolbiac, in Ary Scheffer's 1836 painting

In 496 the Alamanni invaded, some Salians and Ripuarians reguli defected to their side. Clovis met his enemies near the strong fort of Tolbiac. During the fighting, the Franks suffered heavy losses and Clovis (+three thousand Frankish companions) might have converted to Christianity.[18] With the help of the Ripuarian Franks he narrowly defeated the Alamanni in the Battle of Tolbiac in 496.[14] Now Christian, Clovis confined his prisoners, Chararic and his son to a monastery.[11]

Business in Burgundy

See also: Franco-Visigothic Wars § Burgundian_civil_war_(500–501)

In 500 or 501 the relationship between the Burgundian brothers took the turn to the worse began scheming against his brother. He promised his brother-in-law territory and annual tribute for defeating his brother. He seduced his brother-in-law with the promises of territory and annual tribute for deposing his brother; Clovis was eager to subdue the political threat to his realm and crossed to the Burgundian territory. After hearing about the incident Gundobad moved against Clovis and called his brother. The three armies met near Dijon, where both the Franks and Godegisel's forces defeated the host of dumbfounded Gundobad, who was able to escape to Avignon. Clovis proceeded to follow to the Burgundian king and laid siege to the city, however, after some months he was convinced to abandon the siege and settled for an annual tributary from Gundobad.[19]

Armonici allies

In 501, 502 or 503 Clovis led his troops to Armorica. He had previously restricted his operations to minor raids, yet, this time the goal was subjugation. Clovis' failed to complete his objective via military means, therefore, he was constrained to statecraft, which proved fruitful for the Armonici shared Clovis' disdain for the Arian Visigoths. And thus Armorica and her fighters were integrated into Frankish realm.[20]

Late reign (507–511)
Visiting the Visigoths

See also: Franco-Visigothic Wars § Second Franco-Visigothic war (507–508)


Frankish territories at the time of Clovis's death in 511

In 507 Clovis was allowed by the magnates of his realm to invade the remaining threat of the Kingdom of the Visigoths.[21] King Alaric had previously tried to establish a cordial relationship with Clovis by serving him the head of exiled Syagrius on a silver plate in 486 or 487.[10] However, Clovis was no longer able to resist the temptation to move against the Visigoths for many Catholics under Visigoth yoke were unhappy and implored Clovis to make a move. [22] But just to be absolutely certain about retaining the loyalties of the Catholics under Visigoths, Clovis ordered his troops to omit raiding and plunder, for this was not a foreign invasion, but a liberation.[21]

Armonici assisted him in defeating the Visigothic kingdom of Toulouse in the Battle of Vouillé in 507, eliminating Visigothic power in Gaul. The battle added most of Aquitaine to Clovis's kingdom[14] and resulted in the death of the Visigothic king Alaric II.

According to Gregory of Tours, following the battle, the Byzantine Emperor Anastasius I granted Clovis the title of consul. Since Clovis's name does not appear in the consular lists, it is likely he was granted a suffect consulship.[citation needed]

Ravishing the Reguli

In 507, following Vouillé, Clovis heard about Chararic's plan to escape from his monastic prison and had him murdered.[11]

In the same year, Clovis convinced Prince Chlodoric to murder his father, earning him his nickname. Following the murder, Clovis betrayed Chlodoric and had his envoys strike him down. [23]

In 509, Clovis visited his old ally, Ragnachar in Cambrai. Following his conversion, many of his pagan retainers had defected to Ragnachar's side, making him a political threat. Ragnachar denied Clovis's entry, prompting Clovis to make a move against him. He bribed Ragnachar's retainers and soon, Ragnachar and his brother, Ricchar were captured and executed.[24]

Death


The partition of the Frankish kingdom among the four sons of Clovis with Clotilde presiding, Grandes Chroniques de Saint-Denis (Bibliothèque municipale de Toulouse)

Shortly before his death, Clovis called a synod of Gallic bishops to meet in Orléans to reform the Church and create a strong link between the Crown and the Catholic episcopate. This was the First Council of Orléans. Thirty-three bishops assisted and passed 31 decrees on the duties and obligations of individuals, the right of sanctuary, and ecclesiastical discipline. These decrees, equally applicable to Franks and Romans, first established equality between conquerors and conquered.

Clovis I is traditionally said to have died on 27 November 511; however, the Liber Pontificalis suggests that he was still alive in 513, so the exact date of his death is not known.[25] After his death, Clovis was laid to rest in the Abbey of St Genevieve in Paris. His remains were relocated to Saint Denis Basilica in the mid- to late-18th century.

When Clovis died, his kingdom was partitioned among his four sons, Theuderic, Chlodomer, Childebert, and Clotaire. This partition created the new political units of the Kingdoms of Rheims, Orléans, Paris and Soissons, and inaugurated a tradition that would lead to disunity lasting until the end of the Merovingian dynasty in 751. Clovis had been a king with no fixed capital and no central administration beyond his entourage. By deciding to be interred at Paris, Clovis gave the city symbolic weight. When his grandchildren divided royal power 50 years after his death in 511, Paris was kept as a joint property and a fixed symbol of the dynasty.[26]

The disunity continued under the Carolingians until, after a brief unity under Charlemagne, the Franks splintered into distinct spheres of cultural influence that coalesced around Eastern and Western centers of royal power. These later political, linguistic, and cultural entities became the Kingdom of France, the myriad German States, and the semi-autonomous kingdoms of Burgundy and Lotharingia.

Baptism


Tomb of Clovis I at the Basilica of St Denis in Saint Denis

Clovis was born a pagan but later became interested in converting to Arian Christianity, whose followers believed that Jesus was a distinct and separate being from God the Father, both subordinate to and created by Him. This contrasted Nicene Christianity, whose followers believe that God the Father, Jesus, and the Holy Spirit are three persons of one being (consubstantiality). While the theology of the Arians was declared a heresy at the First Council of Nicea in 325, the missionary work of Bishop Ulfilas converted the pagan Goths to Arian Christianity in the 4th century. By the time of the ascension of Clovis, Gothic Arians dominated Christian Gaul, and Catholics were in the minority.

Clovis's wife Clotilde, a Burgundian princess, was a Catholic despite the Arianism that surrounded her at court.[27] Her persistence eventually persuaded Clovis to convert to Catholicism, which he initially resisted. Clotilde had wanted her son to be baptized, but Clovis refused, so she had the child baptized without Clovis's knowledge. Shortly after his baptism, their son died, which further strengthened Clovis's resistance to conversion. Clotilde also had their second son baptized without her husband's permission, and this son became ill and nearly died after his baptism.[28] Clovis eventually converted to Catholicism following the Battle of Tolbiac on Christmas Day 508[29][30] in a small church in the vicinity of the subsequent Abbey of Saint-Remi in Reims; a statue of his baptism by Saint Remigius can still be seen there. The details of this event have been passed down by Gregory of Tours, who recorded them many years later in the 6th century.

The king's Catholic baptism was of immense importance in the subsequent history of Western and Central Europe in general, as Clovis expanded his dominion over almost all of Gaul. Catholicism offered certain advantages to Clovis as he fought to distinguish his rule among many competing power centers in Western Europe. His conversion to the Roman Catholic form of Christianity served to set him apart from the other Germanic kings of his time, such as those of the Visigoths and the Vandals, who had converted from Germanic paganism to Arian Christianity. His embrace of the Roman Catholic faith may have also gained him the support of the Catholic Gallo-Roman aristocracy in his later campaign against the Visigoths, which drove them from southern Gaul in 507 and resulted in a great many of his people converting to Catholicism as well.[31]

On the other hand, Bernard Bachrach has argued that his conversion from Frankish paganism alienated many of the other Frankish sub-kings and weakened his military position over the next few years. In the interpretatio romana, Saint Gregory of Tours gave the Germanic gods that Clovis abandoned the names of roughly equivalent Roman gods, such as Jupiter and Mercury.[32] William Daly, more directly assessing Clovis's allegedly barbaric and pagan origins,[33] ignored the Gregory of Tours version and based his account on the scant earlier sources, a sixth-century "vita" of Saint Genevieve and letters to or concerning Clovis from bishops (now in the Epistolae Austrasicae) and Theodoric.

Clovis and his wife were buried in the Abbey of St Genevieve (St. Pierre) in Paris; the original name of the church was the Church of the Holy Apostles.[34]

Roman Law

Main article: Lex Salica

Under Clovis, the first codification of the Salian Frank law took place. The Roman Law was written with the assistance of Gallo-Romans to reflect the Salic legal tradition and Christianity, while containing much from Roman tradition. The Roman Law lists various crimes as well as the fines associated with them.[35]

Legacy

The legacy of Clovis's conquests, a Frankish kingdom that included most of Roman Gaul and parts of western Germany, survived long after his death.[36] To the French people, he is the founder of France.

Detracting, perhaps, from this legacy, is his aforementioned division of the state. This was done not along national or even largely geographical lines, but primarily to assure equal income amongst his sons after his death. While it may or may not have been his intention, this division was the cause of much internal discord in Gaul. This precedent led in the long run to the fall of his dynasty, for it was a pattern repeated in future reigns.[37] Clovis did bequeath to his heirs the support of both people and Church such that, when the magnates were ready to do away with the royal house, the sanction of the Pope was sought first.

By his conversion to Christianity he made himself the ally of the papacy and its protector as well as that of the people, who were mostly Catholics.
clovis-i-bf70d12b-fca1-434d-91cf-99debc57f2b-resize-750.jpg

Клодвигова владавина добро је почела, 486. године побјеђује посљедњег римског управника у северној Галији, Сијагрија. Побједом проширује власт на простор подручја сјеверно од ријеке Лоаре.
Након тога прави савез са Остроготима, удајући своју сестру за остроготског краља Теодорика Великог, те побјеђује Алемане у бици код Толбијака близу данашњег Келна.
Године 496. са једним дијелом племства прелази на ортодоксно хришћанство крштен је у Ремсу, од тада су сви франачки краљеви крунисани у Ремсу.
Кодвиговим прихватањем хришћанства у ортодоксном облику (ортодоксном у смислу да је вјерно закључцима на никејском сабору 325.године), започиње процес отклањања вјерске разједињености између владајућих Франака и њихових келтских и романских поданика. Покрштавање Франака, које је започето преласком самог Хлодовеха и његовог владарског дома на хришћанску веру, настављено је покрштавањем франачког племства, а потом и свих осталих Франака. Франачко прихватање ортодоксног хришћанства бјеше од посебног значаја, с обзиром да су други германски краљеви, као Остроготи, Визиготи и Вандали, још раније прихватали аријанство.
Након тога 500.године побјеђује Бургунде у бици код Дижона, али није успио потчинити Бургундију својој власти.
Након битке код Вујеа 507. године уништава визиготско краљевство у Галији, а Визиготи се послије те битке повлаче у Хиспанију гдје ће успоставити прилично моћно краљевство.
Тако цијела јужна Француска до Пиринеја улази у састав Франачке.
Conquests of Clovis.jpg

У наредним годинама позабавио се приликама у краљевству, предузима низ кампања против појединих локалних владара или вазала и учвршћује своју власт.
Умире 511. Године, а послије његове смрти Франачку су подијелила његова 4 сина: Теудерик, Клодомер, Хилдеберт и Клотар.
 

Khal Drogo

Domaćin
Poruka
3.810
Документарац посвећен Клодвигу:

Видео запис у сликама посвећен Клодвигу;

Клодвиг, битка и побједа над Алеманима код Толбијака и његов прелазак на хришћанство су били честа инспирација умјетницима.

luminaisroutgermans.jpg

Battle of Tolbiac 496., Évariste Vital Luminais (1822-96)


dejuinnebaptismclovis2.jpg

The Baptism of Clovis 496., François-Louis Dejuinne (1786-1844)
 

Ortar

Aktivan član
Poruka
1.357
Priv franacki vladari su bili pod jakim uticajem Huna i Alana, kao i svi germani koji su bili u vazalnom polozaju spram Huna.
To je zanimljivo sa stanovista nas jer su Suebi, sa kojima su Srbi delili prostor na Labi, bili pod vlascu hunskih i alanskih vladara. Ako preptostavimo da su Srbi originalno alansko-sarmatsko pleme Serbi/Serboi koji se pominje kod antickih pisaca i Sarmati Asiatiaca kao sto se pominje da je srpska politicka, vladalacka elita bila sacinjena od alana onda dolazimo u zanimljiv odnost sa Francima sa kraja 6. veka i pocetkom 7. veka kod Fredegara, kada se prvi put otovreno pominju Srbi.

Inace su franci kreatori hrvatske. Pre franacke nesto kao hrvatske ne postoji. Franci su unistili avarski kaganata krajem 8. veka i doveli su hrvate, koji su bili pod avarskom vlasci prethodno, kao vazale/robove u 9. veku da uspostave uticaj franaka u njihovo ime lokalnim slovenima u delovima Dalmacije i Liburnije.
Zanimljivi su ti opisi kako franci tretiraju hrvate, bacanjem hrvatske dece psima, sto ima opisa u DAI.

Franacki vladari su se prva dva veka postojanja drzave klalali izmedju sebe ozbiljno. To bi mogao biti razlog zasto je Zigbert izgubio od Sama.
 

Khal Drogo

Domaćin
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Клодвиг је подијелио своје краљевсрво међу своја четири сина, Теудерик, Клодомер, Хилдеберт и Клотар, сваки је владао својим подкраљевством.
Привремено су се ујединили како би успјешније ратовали против Бургунда, након побједе 534.године Бургундско краљевство постаје дио Меровиншког краљевства.
Након тога краљевство опет бива на три подкраљевства, Аустразију (која је обухватала област одакле су салијски Франци почели ширење), Неустрију и тек освојену и припојену Бургундија, од којих се свако развијало независно и настојало да изврши утицај на друге.
1024px-Frankish_Empire_481_to_814-en.svg.png

Све то су пратила унутрашња преворања, сукоби гдје би доминацију тежили успоставити аустразијски и неустријски краљеви.
Уопште, све до 679.године имамо паралелно два огранка краљева у Меровиншком краљевству (овдје)
List of Frankish kings

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The Franks were originally led by dukes (military leaders) and reguli (petty kings). The Salian Merovingians rose to dominance among the Franks and conquered most of Roman Gaul. They also conquered the Gaulish territory of the Visigothic Kingdom in 507. The sons of Clovis conquered the Burgundians and Alamanni. They acquired Provence and made the Bavarii and Thuringii their clients. The Merovingians were later replaced by a new dynasty called the Carolingians in the 8th century. By the end of the 9th century, the Carolingians themselves were replaced throughout much of their realm by other dynasties.

A timeline of Frankish rulers is difficult since the realm was, according to old Germanic practice, frequently divided among the sons of a leader upon his death and then eventually reunited through marriage, treaty, or conquest. Thus, there were often multiple Frankish kings ruling different territories, and divisions of those territories was inconsistent over time. As inheritance traditions changed, the divisions of Francia (a modern historiographical term used to denote the lands of the Franks) became more-or-less permanent kingdoms; West Francia formed the nucleus of what later became the Kingdom of France, East Francia evolved into the Kingdom of Germany, and Middle Francia become the Kingdom of Lotharingia in the north, the Kingdom of Italy in the south, and the Kingdom of Provence in the west. West and East Francia soon divided up the area of Middle Francia, and Germany passed from Carolingian control in 911 with the election of Conrad I as king.

The idea of a "King of the Franks" or Rex Francorum gradually disappeared over the 11th and 12th centuries. The title "King of the Franks" continued to be used in the Kingdom of France until 1190. While the Kingdom of the Franks had long been extinct by this time, the title "Queen consort of the Franks" continued to be used until 1227. This represented a shift in thinking about the monarchy from that of a popular monarchy (the leader of a people, sometimes without a defined territory to rule) to that of a monarchy tied to a specific territory.

King of the Franks (509–511)
Merovingian dynasty
Main article: Merovingian dynasty

Clovis I united all the Frankish petty kingdoms as well as most of Roman Gaul under his rule, conquering the Domain of Soissons of the Roman general Syagrius as well as the Visigothic Kingdom of Toulouse. He took his seat at Paris, which along with Soissons, Reims, Metz, and Orléans became the chief residences. Upon his death, the kingdom was split among his four sons.[1]


Name
Reign
PortraitBirthMarriage(s)
Issue
DeathClaim
Clovis I
509

27 November 511
c. 466
Tournai

Son of Childeric I
and Basina of Thuringia
(1) Unknown concubine

1 son
(2) Clotilde
493
4 children
27 November 511
Aged 44/45
Paris
Son of Childeric I
Kings of the Neustrian Franks (511–679)
  • King of both the Neustrian and Austrasian Franks
Merovingian dynasty
Name
Reign
PortraitBirthMarriage(s)
Issue
DeathClaim
Childebert I[1]
27 November 511

13 December 558
c. 496
Reims

Son of Clovis I
and Clotilde
Ultragotha
510s
2 daughters
13 December 558
Aged 61/62
Paris
Son of Clovis I
Inherited fiefdoms of Paris and Neustria
Chlothar I[1]
The Old
13 December 558

29 November 561
c. 497
Paris

Son of Clovis I
and Clotilde
(1) Guntheuc
524
Childless
(2) Radegund
538
2 sons
(3) Ingund
pre-580
4 children
(4) Aregund
pre-580
1 son
(5) Chunsina
580
1 son
29 November 561
Aged 63/64
Compiègne
Son of Clovis I
Natural brother of Childebert I
Charibert I[1]
29 November 561

December 567
Portrait Roi de france Caribert.jpgc. 517
Paris

Son of Chlothar I
and Ingund
Ingoberga
537
4 children
December 567
Aged 49/50
Paris
Son of Chlothar I
Half-brother of Chilperic I
Chilperic I[1]
December 567

September 584
Portrait Roi de france Chilpéric roy de France.jpgc. 539
Paris

Son of Chlothar I
and Aregund
(1) Audovera
540s
5 children
(2) Galswintha
567
Childless
(3) Fredegund
568
7 children
September 584
Aged 44/45
Chelles
Son of Chlothar I
Half-brother of Charibert I
Chlothar II[1]
The Young
September 584

18 October 629
c. 584
Paris

Son of Chilperic I
and Fredegund
(1) Haldetrude


1 son
(2) Bertrude
613
Childless
(3) Sichilde
618
1 son
18 October 629
Aged 44/45
Son of Chilperic I
Dagobert I
18 October 629

19 January 639
603[2]
Paris

Son of Chlothar II
and Haldetrude
(1) Gormatrude


Childless
(2) Nanthild
pre-629
1 son
(3) Wulfegundis


Childless
(4) Berchildis

Childless
19 January 639
Aged 33/34
Épinay-sur-Seine
Son of Chilperic I
Inherited all fiefdoms of Neustria
Clovis II
19 January 639

27 November 657
633[3]
Paris

Son of Dagobert I
and Nanthild
Balthild
640s
3 sons
27 November 657
Aged 23/24
Son of Dagobert I
Chlothar III
27 November 657

Spring 673
652[4]
Paris

Son of Clovis II
and Balthild
UnmarriedSpring 673
Aged 20/21
First son of Clovis II
Childeric II
Spring 673

Autumn 675
653[4]
Paris

Son of Clovis II
and Balthild
Bilichild
?
2 sons
Winter 675
Aged 21/22
Second son of Clovis II
Theuderic III
Autumn 675

23 December 679
654
Paris

Son of Clovis II
and Balthild
(1) Clotilda
pre-675
2 sons
(2) Amalberga of Maubeuge
674
1 daughter (3) Several concubines
At least 3 children
12 April 691
Aged 36/37
Third son of Clovis II
Kings of the Austrasian Franks (511–679)
  • King of both the Neustrian and Austrasian Franks
Merovingian dynasty
Chlothar II defeated Brunhilda and her grandson, reunifying the kingdom. However, in 623, to appease the local nobility and also secure the borders, he gave the Austrasians his young son as their own king. His son and successor, Dagobert I, emulated this move by appointing a sub-king for Aquitaine, with a seat at Toulouse, in 629 and Austrasia in 634.


Name
Reign
PortraitBirthMarriage(s)
Issue
DeathClaim
Theuderic I[1][5]
27 November 511

Early 534
c. 487
Paris

Son of Clovis I
and an earlier wife: Evochildis of Cologne
(1) Suavegotha
510s
Childless
(2) Several concubines
At least 2 sons
Early 534
Aged 46/47
Son of Clovis I
Inherited fiefdoms of Reims
Theudebert I[1]
Early 534

c. 548
Münze Gold Solidus Theudebert I um 534 (obverse).jpgc. 503
Metz

Son of Theuderic I
and a concubine (prob.)
(1) Deuteria
534
1 son
(2) Wisigard
540
Childless
(3) Unknown wife
540s
1 son
c. 548
Aged 44/45
Son of Theuderic I
Theudebald[1]
c. 548

c. 555
c. 535
Son of Theudebert I
and Deuteria
Waldrada
540s
Childless
c. 555
Aged 19/20
Son of Theudebert I
Chlothar I[1]
The Old
c. 555

29 November 561
c. 497
Paris

Son of Clovis I
and Clotilde
(1) Guntheuc
524
Childless
(2) Radegund
538
2 sons
(3) Ingund
pre-580
4 children
(4) Aregund
pre-580
1 son
(5) Chunsina
580
1 son
29 November 561
Aged 63/64
Compiègne
Son of Clovis I
Natural brother of Childebert I
Sigebert I[1]
29 November 561

c. 575
Sigebert 1.jpgc. 535
Son of Chlothar I
and Ingund
Brunhilda of Austrasia
567
3 children
c. 575
Aged 39/40
Vitry-en-Artois
Son of Chlothar I
Inherited fiefdoms of Metz and Reims
Childebert II
c. 575

March 595
c. 570
Son of Sigebert I
and Brunhilda of Austrasia
Faileuba

4 children
March 595
Aged 24/25
Son of Sigebert I
Theudebert II
March 595

612
586
Son of Childebert II
and Faileuba
(1) Bilichilde
608
2 children
(2) Teodechilde
610
1 son
612
Aged 25/26
First son of Childebert II
Theuderic II
612

613
Portrait Roi de france Thierri II (i.e. IV).jpg587
Soissons
Son of Childebert II
and Faileuba
Several paramours
4 sons
613
Aged 25/26
Metz
Second son of Childebert II
Sigebert II
613

Late 613
601

Son of Theuderic II
and Ermenberge
Unmarried613
Aged 11/12
Illegitimate son of Theuderic II
Chlothar II[1]
The Young
September 584

623
c. 584
Paris

Son of Chilperic I
and Fredegund
(1) Haldetrude


1 son
(2) Bertrude
613
Childless
(3) Sichilde
618
1 son
18 October 629
Aged 44/45
Son of Chilperic I
Dagobert I
623

634
605
Paris

Son of Chlothar II
and Haldetrude
(1) Gormatrude


Childless
(2) Nanthild
pre-629
1 son
(3) Wulfegundis


Childless
(4) Berchildis

Childless
19 January 639
Aged 34/35
Épinay-sur-Seine
Son of Chilperic I
Fiefdoms of Austrasia granted by local nobility
Sigebert III
634

1 February 656
630
Son of Dagobert I
and Ragnertrude (concubine)
Chimnechild of Burgundy
651
2 children
1 February 656
Aged 25/26
Son of Dagobert I
Childebert
The Adopted

1 February 656

661
640s
Son of Grimoald
and Itta of Metz
Unmarried661
Aged 20s
Adoptive son of Sigebert III
Chose as heir by his predecessor
Chlothar III
661

Spring 673
649
Paris

Son of Clovis II
and Balthild
UnmarriedSpring 673
Aged 23/24
First son of Clovis II
Childeric II
Spring 673

Autumn 675
654
Paris

Son of Clovis II
and Balthild
Bilichild
688
2 sons
Winter 691
Aged 21/22
Second son of Clovis II
Clovis III
Autumn 675

c. 676
c. 670

Son of Chlothar III
and unknown paramour
Unmarriedc. 676
Aged 5/6
Illegitimate son of Chlothar III
Dagobert II
c. 676

23 December 679
c. 650

Son of Sigebert III
and Chimnechild of Burgundy
Unknown woman
1 son (uncertain)
23 December 679
Aged 28/29
Stenay
Natural son of Sigebert III
Kings of the Franks (679–840)
Merovingian dynasty
Theuderic III was recognized as king of all the Franks in 679. From then on, the kingdom of the Franks can be treated as a unit again for all but a very brief period of civil war. This is the period of the "idle kings" who were increasingly overshadowed by their mayors of the palace.


Name
Reign
PortraitBirthMarriage(s)
Issue
DeathClaim
Theuderic III
23 December 679

12 April 691
654
Paris

Son of Clovis II
and Balthild
(1) Clotilda
pre-675
2 sons
(2) Amalberga of Maubeuge
674
1 daughter (3) Several concubines
At least 3 children
12 April 691
Aged 36/37
Third son of Clovis II
Clovis IV
12 April 691

695
c. 677


Son of Theuderic III
and Clotilda
Unmarried695
Aged 17/18
First son of Theuderic III
Childebert III
The Just

695

23 April 711
c. 678


Son of Theuderic III
and Clotilda
(1) Ermenchild
1 son
(2) Unknown paramour
1 son
23 April 711
Aged 32/33
Second son of Theuderic III
Dagobert III
The Just

23 April 711

31 December 715
Portrait Roi de france Dagobert II (i.e III).jpgc. 699


Son of Childebert III
and Ermenchild
(1) Unknown wife
1 son
(2) Unknown paramour
1 son
31 December 715
Aged 16
Second son of Childebert III
Chilperic II
31 December 715

13 February 721
Portrait Roy de france Chilperic II.jpgc. 672


Son of Childeric II
and Bilichild
Unknown concubine
1 son
13 February 721
Aged 48/49
Attigny, Ardennes
Second son of Childeric II
First cousin of Dagobert III
Theuderic IV
13 February 721

16 March/30 April 737
c. 712


Son of Dagobert III
and unknown woman
Unknown concubine
1 son
16 March/30 April 737
Aged 24/25
Son of Dagobert III
Interregnum (737–741); Charles Martel reigned as Regent
Childeric III
The Phantom King

741

November 751
c. 717


Son of Chilperic II
and unknown paramour
Unknown paramour
1 son
754
Aged 36/37
Illegitimate son of Chilperic II
Carolingian dynasty
Main article: Carolingian dynasty

The Carolingians were initially mayors of the palace under the Merovingian kings, first in Austrasia and later in Neustria and Burgundy. In 687, Pippin of Heristal took the title Duke and Prince of the Franks (dux et princeps Francorum) after his conquest of Neustria in at the Battle of Tertry, which was cited by contemporary chroniclers as the beginning of Pippin's reign. Between 715 and 716, the descendants of Pippin disputed the succession.

In March 752,[6][7] Pippin (Pepin) became the King of the Franks and the office of mayor disappeared. The Carolingians displaced the Merovingians as the ruling dynasty.


Name
Reign
PortraitBirthMarriage(s)
Issue
DeathClaim
Pepin
The Short

November 751

24 September 768
714

Son of Charles Martel
and Rotrude of Trier
Bertrada of Laon
741
5 children
24 September 768
Aged 54
Saint-Denis
Elected by Frankish nobles
Coup d'état against Merovingians
Carloman I
24 September 768

4 December 771
28 June 751
Soissons
Son of Pepin the Short
and Bertrada of Laon
Gerberga
741
2 sons
4 December 771
Aged 20
Samoussy
Second son of Pepin the Short
Charles I
The Great
("Charlemagne")
24 September 768

28 January 814
2 April 742
Son of Pepin the Short
and Bertrada of Laon
(1) Himiltrude (concubine)
768
1 son
(2) Desiderata of the Lombards
770
Childless
(3) Hildegard of the Vinzgau
771
9 children
(4) Fastrada
784
2 daughters
(5) Luitgard
794
Childless
(6) Several concubines
6 children
28 January 814
Aged 71
Aachen
First son of Pepin III
Louis I
The Pious

28 January 814

20 June 840
16 April 778
Casseuil
Son of Charles I
and Hildegard of the Vinzgau
(1) Ermengarde of Hesbaye
794
6 children
(2) Judith of Bavaria
819
2 children
20 June 840
Aged 62
Ingelheim am Rhein
Second son of Charles I

Louis the Pious made many divisions of his empire during his lifetime. The final division, pronounced at Worms in 838, made Charles the Bald heir to the west, including Aquitaine, and Lothair heir to the east, including Italy and excluding Bavaria, which was left for Louis the German. However, following the emperor's death in 840, the empire was plunged into a civil war that lasted three years. The Frankish kingdom was then divided by the Treaty of Verdun in 843. Lothair was allowed to keep his imperial title and his kingdom of Italy, and granted the newly created Kingdom of Middle Francia, a corridor of land stretching from Italy to the North Sea, and including the Low Countries, the Rhineland (including Aachen), Burgundy, and Provence. Charles was confirmed in Aquitaine, where Pepin I's son Pepin II was opposing him, and granted West Francia (modern France), the lands west of Lothair's Kingdom. Louis the German was confirmed in Bavaria and granted East Francia (modern Germany), the lands east of Lothair's kingdom.

The following table does not provide a complete listing for some of the various regna of the empire, especially those who were subregna of the Western, Middle, or Eastern kingdom such as Italy, Provence, Neustria, and Aquitaine.
Сукоб ће ескалирати за времена краља Аустразије Сигеберта I и краља Неустрије Хилперика I. И гдје ће важну улогу одиграти како то и бива жене и њихове краљице, Брунгилда и Фредегунда.
Е ова Брунхилда је невјероватно занимљива жена (овдје)
Brunhilda of Austrasia

Brunhilda
Queen of Austrasia
Brunhilda.jpg
Philippoteaux and Girardet, Die Folterung von Brunhilde (The Torture of Brunhilda).
Bornc. 543
Toledo
Died613 (aged 69–70)
SpouseSigebert I of Austrasia
Merovech
IssueIngund
Chlodosind
Childebert II
FatherAthanagild
MotherGoiswintha
Brunhilda[1] (c. 543–613) was queen consort of Austrasia, part of Francia, by marriage to the Merovingian king Sigebert I of Austrasia, and regent for her son, grandson and great grandson.
In her long and complicated career she ruled the eastern Frankish kingdoms of Austrasia and Burgundy for three periods as regent for her son Childebert II from 575 until 583; her grandson Theudebert II from 595 until 599; and great-grandson Sigebert II in 613. The period was marked by tension between the royal house and the powerful nobles vying for power.
Brunhilda was apparently an efficient ruler, but this and her forceful personality brought her into conflict with her nobles, the church, and the other Merovingians. Her bitter feud with Fredegund, mistress of Chilperic I of Neustria, who murdered Brunhilda's sister, Queen Galswintha, c. 568 in order to replace her as queen, lasted until Fredegund's death in 597. Fredegund had Brunhilda's husband murdered and Brunhilda imprisoned for a period. This feud was continued by Fredegund's son, Chlothar II, who in 613 defeated Brunhilda in battle and had her executed by being pulled apart by four horses.

Life
Brunhilda was possibly born about 543 in the Visigothic capital of Toledo, the younger of the two daughters of Athanagild and Goiswintha. She was only eleven years old when her father was made king in 554. She was educated in Toledo as an Arian Christian.

First marriage
In 567, she was married to King Sigebert I of Austrasia, a grandson of Clovis I, who had sent an embassy to Toledo loaded with gifts. She joined him at Metz. Upon their marriage, she converted to Catholicism.[2]

Sigebert's father, Chlothar I, had reunited the four kingdoms of the Franks, but when he died, Sigebert and his three brothers divided them again. According to historian and bishop Gregory of Tours, Sigebert's marriage to a Visigothic princess was a criticism of his brothers' choices in wives. Instead of marrying a low-born woman, Sigebert chose a princess of education and morals.

In response to Sigebert's noble marriage, his brother, Chilperic I of Neustria, sent for Brunhilda's sister, Galswintha. Gregory of Tours suggests that he proposed because he envied his brother's marriage to Brunhilda;[3] however, Galswintha ordered him to purge his court of courtesans and mistresses and he soon grew tired of her. He and his favorite mistress, Fredegund, conspired to murder her. An unknown assailant strangled Galswintha while she slept in her bed and Chilperic married Fredegund.

Brunhilda so detested Fredegund for the death of her sister—and this hatred was so fiercely reciprocated—that the two queens persuaded their husbands to go to war.[4] Sigebert persuaded their other brother, the elder Guntram of Burgundy, to mediate the dispute between the queens. He decided that Galswintha's dower of Bordeaux, Limoges, Cahors, Béarn, and Bigorre should be turned over to Brunhilda in restitution. However, Chilperic did not easily give up the cities and Brunhilda did not forget the murder. Bishop Germain of Paris negotiated a brief peace between them.

Between 567 and 570, Brunhilda bore Sigebert three children: Ingund, Chlodosind, and Childebert.

The peace was then broken by Chilperic, who invaded Sigebert's dominions. Sigebert defeated Chilperic, who fled to Tournai. The people of Paris hailed Sigebert as a conqueror when he arrived with Brunhilda and their children. Bishop Germain wrote to Brunhilda, asking her to persuade her husband to restore the peace and to spare his brother. Chroniclers of his life say that she ignored this; certainly Sigebert set out to besiege Tournai. Fredegund responded to this threat to her husband by hiring two assassins, who killed Sigebert at Vitry-en-Artois with poisoned daggers (scramsaxi, according to Gregory). Brunhilda was captured and imprisoned at Rouen.[5]

Second marriage
Merovech, the son of Chilperic and his first wife Audovera, went to Rouen on pretext of visiting his mother. While there, he decided to marry the widowed Brunhilda and thus strengthen his chances of becoming a king. His stepmother, Fredegund, was determined that only her sons should succeed as kings and eliminated her husband's sons by other women. Merovech and Brunhilda were married by the Bishop of Rouen, Praetextatus. However, since Brunhilda was Merovech's aunt the marriage was contrary to canon law.[6]

Chilperic soon besieged them in the church of St Martin on the walls. Eventually he made peace with them, but he took Merovech away with him to Soissons. In an effort to nullify the marriage, Chilperic had Merovech tonsured and sent to the monastery of Le Mans to become a priest. Merovech fled to the sanctuary of St Martin at Tours, which was Gregory's church (who was thus an eyewitness to these events),[7] and later to Champagne. He finally returned to Tours in 578 and when his bid for power failed, he asked his servant to kill him.[8]

First regency
Brunhilda now tried to seize the regency of Austrasia in the name of her son Childebert II, but she was resisted fiercely by her nobles and had to retire briefly to the court of Guntram of Burgundy before obtaining her goal. At that time, she ruled Austrasia as regent. Not being a fighter, she was primarily an administrative reformer, with a Visigothic education. She repaired the old Roman roads, built many churches and abbeys, constructed the necessary fortresses, reorganised the royal finances, and restructured the royal army. However, she antagonised the nobles by her continued imposition of royal authority wherever it was lax. To reinforce her positions and the crown's prestige and power, she convinced Guntram, newly heirless, to adopt Childebert as his own son and heir. This he did in 577.[9] In 579, she married her daughter Ingunda, then only thirteen, to the Visigothic prince Hermenegild, allying her house to that of the king of her native land. However, Hermenegild converted to Catholicism and he and his wife both died in the ensuing religious wars which tore apart the Visigothic kingdom in Spain.

Brunhilda ruled Austrasia until Childebert came of age in 583, at the traditional Merovingian majority of thirteen.

Relations with King Guntram
The conflict with Fredegund flared up once more upon the death of Chilperic. Now in the regency in Neustria, Fredegund was in a position to renew the war with her old enemy. Simultaneously, Brunhilda had to deal with her own internal enemies.

Many of the dukes strongly opposed her influence over her son Childebert, the king. Three of them—Rauching, Ursio, and Berthefrid—conspired to assassinate Childebert; however, their plot was found out. Rauching was killed and Ursio and Berthefrid fled to a fortress. Upon this, Guntram immediately begged for Childebert, Brunhilda, and Childebert's two sons to take refuge at his court. This they did and soon Ursio and Berthefrid were killed. In 587, Guntram, Childebert, and Brunhilda settled the Pact of Andelot[10] securing for Childebert the Burgundian succession and a continuing alliance of the two realms of Austrasia and Burgundy for the rest of Guntram's life.

In that same year, King Reccared I of the Visigoths sent embassies to both Childebert and Guntram, the former accepting them and consolidating an alliance and the latter refusing to see them. Thus, when Brunhilda and Childebert negotiated a marriage for the king's sister Chlodosind with the king of Spain, it was rejected by Guntram and abandoned. In 592, Guntram died and Childebert, per the treaty, succeeded to his kingdom, immediately making war on Clotaire II of Neustria, Chilperic's son by Fredegund. Childebert died in 596 at the age of twenty-six.[5]

Second regency
Upon Childebert's death, Brunhilda attempted to govern Austrasia and Burgundy in the name of her grandsons Theudebert II and Theuderic II. Theudebert became king of Austrasia, and Theuderic, king of Burgundy.[5] Though she attributed the death of Childebert to Fredegund, the latter died in 597 and the direct conflict between her and Brunhilda ended. Peace would elude the Franks, however, for many years more as the conflict raged between the two queens' descendants.

In 599, Brunhilda's elder grandson, Theudebert, at whose court she was staying, exiled her. She was found wandering near Arcis in Champagne by a peasant, who brought her to Theuderic. The peasant was rewarded with the bishopric of Auxerre, as the legend goes. Theuderic welcomed her and readily fell under her influence, which was now inclined to vengeance against Theudebert. Soon the brothers were at war.

It is at this point that Brunhilda, now in her later fifties and having survived all the previous tribulations, began to display that ruthlessness which led to her especially violent demise. Brunhilda first took Protadius as lover and, desiring to promote him to high office, conspired to have Berthoald, the mayor of the palace, killed. In 604, she convinced Theuderic to send Berthoald to inspect the royal villae along the Seine. Clotaire, in accordance with Brunhilda's bidding, sent his own mayor Landric (a former paramour of Fredegund) to meet Berthoald, who had only a small contingent of men with him. Realising that he had been the victim of courtly plotting, Berthoald, in the ensuing confrontation, overchased the enemy until he was surrounded and killed. Protadius was promptly put in his place.

Brunhilda and Protadius soon persuaded Theuderic to return to war with Theudebert, but the mayor was murdered by his warriors, who did not wish to fight to assuage the ego of the queen. The man who ordered Protadius' execution, Duke Uncelen, was soon arrested by Brunhilda and tortured and executed. He was not the first ducal victim of the queen's vengeance.

It was also during these later regencies that Desiderius, Bishop of Vienne (later Saint Didier), publicly accused her of incest and cruelty. Desiderius finally enraged her with a pointed sermon on chastity preached in 612 before her and Theuderic, with whom she then hired three assassins to murder the bishop at the village now-called Saint-Didier-sur-Chalaronne.


The murder of Brunhilda, from De Casibus Virorum Illustrium, attributed to Maître François, Paris, c. 1475
Third regency
The successor of Theuderic II was his bastard son Sigebert, a child. The mayor of the palace of Austrasia, Warnachar, fearing that at his young age he would fall under the influence of his great-grandmother, brought him before a national assembly, where he was proclaimed king by the nobles, who then did homage to him ruling over both his father's kingdoms. Nonetheless, he could not be kept out of the influence of Brunhilda. Thus, for the last time in a long life (now in her seventies), she was regent of the Franks, this time for her own great-grandson.

But Warnachar and Rado, mayor of the palace of Burgundy, along with Pepin of Landen and Arnulf of Metz, resentful of her regency, abandoned the cause of Brunhilda over the young king and joined with her old antagonist Clotaire II, promising not to rise in defence of the queen-regent and recognising Clotaire as rightful regent and guardian of Sigebert. Brunhilda, with Sigebert, met Clotaire's army on the Aisne, but the dukes yet again betrayed her: the Patrician Aletheus, Duke Rocco, and Duke Sigvald deserted her and she and her king had to flee. They fled as far as the city of Orbe (in today French Switzerland), hoping to enlist the aid of certain German tribes, but Clotaire's minions caught up with them by Lake Neuchâtel. The young king and his brother Corbo were both killed: thus ended the long and bloody feud between Austrasia and Neustria, and, reuniting the two kingdoms, Clotaire held the entire realm of the Franks.

Clotaire then accused Brunhilda of the death of ten kings of the Franks. The identity of the ten kings comes from the Fourth Book of the Chronicle of Fredegar. It is usually said to include Sigebert I, Chilperic I, Theudebert II, Theuderic II, Sigebert II, Merovech (Chilperic's son), Merovech (Theuderic's son), Corbo (Theuderic's son), and Childebert (Theuderic's son) and the sons of Theudebert; along with many churchmen, including Desiderius. According to the Liber Historiae Francorum:
Then the army of the Franks and Burgundians joined into one, all shouted together that death would be most fitting for the very wicked Brunhilda. Then King Clotaire ordered that she be lifted onto a camel and led through the entire army. Then she was tied to the feet of wild horses and torn apart limb from limb. Finally she died. Her final grave was the fire. Her bones were burnt.
One legend has her being dragged by a wild mare down the Roman road La Chaussée Brunehaut at Abbeville.

Religion
Brunhilda was raised as an Arian Christian, but upon her marriage to Sigebert, converted to Chalcedonian Christianity. In general, she protected the church and treated Pope Gregory the Great with great respect. He wrote a series of positive letters to her; in 597 he wrote to her about interdicting pagan rites such as tree worship.[clarification needed] Gregory of Tours was another favoured cleric; he was a trusted courtier to her and her son from 587 until his death. She also took a keen personal interest in the bishoprics and monasteries within her dominion. This brought her into conflict with Columbanus, abbot of Luxeuil, whom she eventually exiled to Italy, where he founded Bobbio. Brunhilda also played a role in perpetuating the diocese of Maurienne as a suffragan bishopric of the archdiocese of Vienne. In 576, Brunhilda's protector, Sigebert's brother Guntram, had founded the new bishopric at Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne, separating the Maurienne Valley and the neighboring Susa Valley from the Diocese of Turin. The Bishop of Turin protested this to Brunhilda for more than twenty years, but even when Pope Gregory the Great supported his complaint in 599, Brunhilda dismissed it.

Brunhilda was buried in the Abbaye de St. Martin at Autun that she founded in 602 on the spot where the bishop of Tours had cut down a beech-tree that served as an object of pagan worship. The abbey was destroyed in 1793 and two parts of the cover of Brunhilda's sarcophagus are now in the Musée Rolin in Autun.[11]

Brunhilda commissioned the building of several churches and the abbey of St. Vincent at Laon (founded in 580). She is also credited with founding the castle of Bruniquel and having a Roman road resurfaced near Alligny-en-Morvan (where the name of a nearby hill Terreau Bruneau is believed to be derived from hers). The part of Mauves-sur-Loire known as la Fontaine Bruneau is named after Brunhilda who may have cooled herself with the fountain's water when she suffered heat exhaustion.

In legend
Many scholars have seen Brunhilda as inspiration for both Brunhild and Kriemhild, two rival characters from the Nibelungenlied. Kriemhild married Siegfried, who in many respects resembles Sigebert, Brunhilda's husband. There is resemblance between a multitude of characters and events in the Nibelungenlied and those of the latter half of the sixth century in Merovingian Gaul. As Thomas Hodgkin remarks:


Treasures buried in long departed days by kings of old, mysterious caves, reptile guides or reptile guardians - are we not transported by this strange legend into the very atmosphere of the Niebelungen Lied? And if the good king Gunthram passed for the fortunate finder of the Dragon-hoard, his brothers and their queens, by their wars, their reconciliations and their terrible avengings, must surely have suggested the main argument of that most tragical epic, the very name of one of whose heroines, Brunichildis, is identical with the name of the queen of Austrasia.[12]
Брунхилда бјеше кћерка визиготског краља Хиспаније и Септиманије, Атанагилда. 567. године удаје се за Сигеберта, након вјенчања са аријаства прелази а ортодоксно хришћанство.
За разлику од браће који су се женили нискорођеним женама, Сигеберт је оженио кћерку краља, тиме и ојачао свју позицију у мЕровиншком краљевству, као одговор, његов брат, Хилперик, краљ Неустрије жени Брунхилдину старију сестру, Галсвинту.
Но тај брак није ишао по добром, Галсвинта му је наредила да очисти свој двор од куртизана и љубавница, овај је у избору љубвнице Фредегунде и жене племенитог рода изабрао опцију један, што је разумљиво имало за епилог краљичину смрт, а Хилперик жени љубавницу.
За посљедицу ће имати жестоку мржњу двије краљице, Брунхилдина мржња је разумљиво појачана и због убиства срстре, и двије краљице су нахушкале мужеве на рат. Који је привремено прекинут гдје су посредовали још један брат, Гунтрам који је владао Бургундијом и париски бискуп.

Примирје је прекинуо Хилперик који напада Сигебертове области, но побјеђује га Сигеберт, а Хилперик бјећи у Тоур.
Сигеберт креће у опсаду Тоура, но Фредегунда унајмљује двојицу убица који отровним бодежима убијају Сигеберта, а Брунхилда бјеше заробљена и затворена у Роану.
Меровех, син Хилперика и прве жене Аудовере (прије и ове визиготске принцезе), одлази у Роан под изговором да је у посети мајке, ту се жени Брунхилдом са намјером да ојача своју позицију.
Међутим, будући да је Брунхилда била Меровекова стрина, брак бјеше супротан канонском закону.
Хилперик предузима акцију, на крају се ипак мири, али води Меровеха са собом у настојању да поништи брак, у драматичним догађајима Меровех трагично сконча.
Брунхилда се враћа у Аустразију, са намјером да влада као регент у име свог малољетног сина Хилдеберта II, локални велможе пружају жесток отпор, након сукоба повлаче се на двор Гунтрама из Бургундије, а Брунхилда влада као регент.
Енергична, изузетно образована и способна у улози владара, приступа бројним реформама, поправља римске путеве, изграђује утврде, цркве, опатије, реорганизује краљевске финансије и војску. Да би ојачала свој положај и престиж, убјеђује Гунтрама да Хилдеберта усвоји за свог сина и насљедника, а 579.године удаје ћерку за визиготског принца, који прелази на ортодоксно хришћанство и са супругом гине у религијским ратовима који су услиједили.
Након смрти Хилперика, стара ривалка, убица њене сестре и заклети непријатељ, Фредегундом постаје регент Неустријом, а Брунхилда се морала борити и са унутрашњим непријатељима, велможама који нису прихватали њену превелику моћ.
Припремали су и атентат на Хилдеберта, но спречени су, а Хилдеберт и Брунхилда са Гунтрамом склапају трајни савез Аустразије и Бургундије до краја Гунтрамовог живота.
Гунтрам умире 592. Године, а Брунхлдин син Хилдеберт умире 596. године у двадесет шестој години.
Након Хилдебертове смрти, Брунхилда ју име уника Теудеберта II који постаје краљем Аустразије и Теудерика II који постаје краљем Бургундије, управља краљевствима, но 599. године, бива прогнана са аустразијског двора.
Налази је неки сељак, одлази на Теудериков двор, који одмах пада под њен утицај, шро ће имати епилог рат измешу рођене браће и њених унука.
Сама Брунхилда, сада већ у познијим годинама показује све више другу нарав, безобзирност, разузданост, свом новом љубавнику сплеткама и убиствима крчи пут у хијерархији, остврила је и јак утицај на унука Теудерика којег хушка на рат са братом Теудебертом, но такав рат зарад ега Брунхилде није био по вољи ратницима да гину зарад таквих разлога, све то прате стална превирања и убиства.
Бива све више омражена, оптужена за сплеткарења, хировитост, па и за инцест.
У свим тим драматичним догађајима за годину дана 612-613.године умиру Теудеберт II а за њим и Теудерик II којег насљеђује ванбрачни син Сигеберт, а Брунхилда по трећи пута, овај пута у име праунука постаје регент.

Но мајордом Аустразије Варнахар којем је дозлогрдило овакво стање удружује се са мајордомом Бургундије, придружују се неустријском краљу и заклетом Брунхилдином непријатељу Клотару II, убрзу бива убијен и малољетни Сигеберт, Брунхилду издају њене војводе, на крају издана од свих, Брунхилда бјеше оптужена за бројна недјела, укључујући и смрт 10 франачких краљева (??), бива осуђена на смрт, везали су је за ноге дивљих коња и у таквој свирепој смрти завршила свој пут.
81OAje3awCL._AC_SY741_.jpg

Тако је скончала Брунхилда, јединствана по томе што је као једина у историји била регент у три наврата, у име сина, унука и праунука, као владар свакако ефикасна, но снажна личност довеле су је у сукоб са племићима, Црквом и другим Меровинзима.
 

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Franci, Karolinzi, su velikim delom krivi za podelu crkve na istok i zapad 1054 tzv. Veliku sizmu.
Oni su naterali Latine u Rimu da menjaju shvatanje teoloskih dogmi ranog hriscanstva iako su se Latini protivili tome na kraju je poltiicka moc Karla Velikog i Karolinga presudila.
 

Khal Drogo

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Franci, Karolinzi, su velikim delom krivi za podelu crkve na istok i zapad 1054 tzv. Veliku sizmu.
Oni su naterali Latine u Rimu da menjaju shvatanje teoloskih dogmi ranog hriscanstva iako su se Latini protivili tome na kraju je poltiicka moc Karla Velikog i Karolinga presudila.
Вјероватно има подоста истине.
Након што је на темељима Источне Франачке 962.године обновљено, тачније успостављено ново Римско Царство ствари су се усложиле у хрипћанском свијету.
HRR.gif

Посебно послије 1157.године када за владавине Фридриха I Барбаросе мијења назив у Свето Римско Царство кроз који се разгољује тежња да буде доминантан фактор у хришћанском свијету. Заправо и прије 962.године у хришћанском свијету имамо борбу латинског, грчког и германског елемента за што јачим утицајем у хришћанској духовној сфери.
Ипак, када доносимо суд око тзв великог раскола или тзв велике шизме 1054.године, ваља бити опрезан јер се у стварности те 1054.године никакав велики раскол није догодио, тек дипломатски инцидент каквих бјеше на стотине у историји. Да тај инцидент није тада имао толику важност, говори чињеница да су се папа и западни хришћански свијет 1095.године одазвали вапају византинског цара и отпочели крсташки рат. Није спорно, стварни мотиви рата су освајање територије и богати плијен, али да је тај раскол имао толику важност како се касније представљало не би се одазвали позиву "шизматика" већ би нашли други повод за ратни поход.
Ова прича о "великој шизми" 1054.године афирмисана је касније, посебно почетком XIII вијека као изговор за поход и пустошење Цариграда и поход на словенске територије на истоку.
И то би била занимљива тема (тренутно на птф историја колико сам видио није отворена), можда је не би било лоше отворити, о том, потом.
 

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Istina je to. Jos je Karlo Veliki pritisnuo pape da menjaju teoloska pravila.
Sve je to deo poltiicke borbe kako bi se smanjio uticaj Konstantinopolja i Rima a da Franci prezumu primat.
 

NickFreak

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Mislim da originalni Franci kao i mnostvo tih plemena nema veze sa Germanima vec konglomerat starijih plemena pa se upravo Merovinzi pozivaju na svoje skitsko poreklo.
Rimljani su Skite zvali i izvornim.
Svakako se danas holandski smatra najcistijim odnosno najblize izvornom franackom jeziku. Kasno se jako pojavljuju mnogo nakon oblikovanja germanskim plemenima. Rimljani su pisali da su ovi varvari od svih varvara najnapredniji
Planski su naseljeni na teritorije Rima.
Neki raniji britanski spisi dovode Merovige u vezu sa Markomanima.
Dakle postoji kod Germana stalna tendencija da narode koji su stariji koji su im napravili protodrzave i formirali neku vrstu svesti o saplemenistvu germanizuju bez ikakvih direktnih dokaza o njihovom poreklu.
Sama Pseudofederigarova hronika govori o trojanskom poreklu Franaka.
Ako uzmemo u obzir da su Holandjani sjani moreplovci i trgovci od davnina da su najvisi od svih "germanskih" naroda i da imaju osobine koje ne krase ostale germanske narode onda kao Belgijanci koji i antropoloski lice na Gale odnosno Kelte koji su prvi izvrsili veliki kulturoloski uticaj na Germane koji isprva nisu znali nista o poljoprivredi i sedelackom zivotu vec su bili vise orijentisani ka pljacki kao glavnoj grani privrede.
Mene takodje jako cudi da Vandali kao izrazito kontinentalan narod kako ucimo o njima prelaze u severnu Afriku , gde se odmah snalaze sa starokartaginjanskom mornaricom s kojom terorisu Rim i grcke obale gde im polazi za rukom osvajanje Sicilije i pljackanje i Rima kao i dovodjenje prvog arijanskog pape na tron.
Oni su bili veliki neprijatelji Vizigota i Franaka. Franci su imali stalnu tendenciju ka Iberijskim poluostrvu , zatvaranjem puta ka Africi sto dovelo do neprijateljstva sa Vizigotima narocito od kada je prvi Merovig presao u nikejansku veru.
 

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U modernoj istoriji je potvrdjeno da su Huni i Alani imali veliki uticaj na Germane, koji su bili pdoredjeni, i nacin organizavoanje njihove vojske i drzave, ukljucujuci i Franke.
To se sada potvrdjuje i za Vikinge.
 

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Sama Pseudofederigarova hronika govori o trojanskom poreklu Franaka.
Da, то предање о поријеклу Франака постоји, имамо га у рукопису Liber Historiae Francorum које је познатије под насловом Gesta regum Francorum (издање из 1888.године од Бруна Круша од стр.241 који говори о том предању овдје) и гдје нам описује како је 12.000 Тројанаца, предвођених Пријамом и Антенором, отпловило од Троје до ријеке Танаис (данас Дон) и даље до Панонија , насељавајући се у близини Азовског мора. Тамо су основали град по имену Сикамбриа. Овдје је важно нагласити да су Сикамбријци били најпознатије племе у ранијој франачкој домовини у вријеме Римског царства, много прије него што се франачко име појавило. Тројанци су се придружили римској војсци у извршавању задатка да преносе своје непријатељи у мочваре Меотис, због чега су и добили име Франци (изведено из латинског ferox , "дивљи"). Деценију касније Римљани су убили Пријама и протјерали Маркомера и Суна, синове Пријама и Антенора, и остале Франке. Предање тако иде, колико има и да ли уопште има мрва истине, по обичају тешко је дати коначан суд, "примићемо га к знању".
Mene takodje jako cudi da Vandali kao izrazito kontinentalan narod kako ucimo o njima prelaze u severnu Afriku , gde se odmah snalaze sa starokartaginjanskom mornaricom s kojom terorisu Rim i grcke obale gde im polazi za rukom osvajanje Sicilije i pljackanje i Rima kao i dovodjenje prvog arijanskog pape na tron.
Да, тај импресиван "напредак" Вандала за кратко вријеме када су у питању бродоградња, морепловство и вичност поморског ратовању су обавијени велом мистерије.
Могуће има више разлога који би могли објаснити тај истински феномен. Вандали под моћним лидером Гајзериком су на свом путешествију и кроз Галију и у Хиспанији (која ће по њима бити и именована Андалузјиом), интегрисали више германских, келтско-иберских и народа феничанског поријекла, преласком у сјеверну Африку су наставили интегрисати те народе, и становнике бивших феничанских колонија који свакако бејаху врсни морепловци, те интеграција је поспјешивало како сам и написао раније тежња да имају заштиту моћног вође (Гајзерика) али и заједничка нетрпељивост према Риму, могуће и вјерски фактор, аријанство које је пустило коријење на том простору. Но то је већ друга тема.
 
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NickFreak

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Ja mislim da su mozda integrisali u severnoj Africi jer su u Evropi bili suoceni sa unistenjem od Gota. Medjutim deo Vandala i Alana je ostao prisutan u vidu nekih protodrzava na Iberskom poluostrvu.
Dok su Suebi zasnovali priznatu kraljevinu u Galiciji i tu su se medjusobno sukobljavali.
Put uz Dunav su preprecili Franci gde su Vandali jako proredjeni te su ipak uz pomoc alanske konjice probili Franke i naselili se na Iberskom poluostrvu i severnoj Africi.
Sukob ocigledno nije bio samo verski jer deo Vandala je primio Nikejansku veru sto im nije pomoglo mislim da su Silinge u pitanju a Hadsinge su bili arijanci kao i ostali koji su primili veru u vrene cara Konstantina.
Ineresantna stvar mislim da nije slucajnost da su Vizigoti krenuli istim putem u severnu Afriku ali su ih ocigledno zaustavili Suebi , Vandali i Alani koji su ostali na Iberskom poluostrvu. Oni su pokorili Alane i Vandale a suebsko podkraljevstvo je nastavilo da postoji u nekom vazalnom odnosu prema Vizigotima sve do dolaska Saracena.
Taj period i prva podela crkve i hriscanstva na arijance i nikejce je slabo objasnjen i obradjen istorijski. Ostaje po neka izjava Rimljana pod Ostrogotima da se ceo svet podelio na arijanstvo i nikejstvo sto je rezultiralo totalnim slomom i mrakom koji Rimljani pamte , zato su Ostrogoti bili jako lose prihvaceni od itaslskog stanovnistva i u Dalmaciji zbog njihovog arijanstva.
 

Kole11

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Ajde da ne bude Deretic najgori, postoji dostojna konkurencija u srednjevekovnoj Holandiji;)

Krajem 15. veka u crkvenim krugovima Utrehta napisana je hronika pod nazivom Cronica de Trajecto ili Chronicle of Utrecht

Autor je opisao da Sloveni vode poreklo sa britasnkih ostrva odakle su oko 900. godine pre Hrista presli u Evropu. Tu su se pomesali sa germaskim plemenima i nastavili ekspanziju. Julije Cezar je ratovao protiv njih na terotoriji danasnje Holandije, porazio ih, pokorio i ubio njihovog velikasa pod imenom Braban.

https://books.google.rs/books?id=ZX...IsKHcV9CoMQ6AEwB3oECAcQAg#v=onepage&q&f=false

Quia quod modo est Hollandia fuit tota nemorosa ac silvestris & haec primo possessa fuit a feris hominibus, qui ex Anglia venerunt, quae tunc Albion, postea Britannia, modo Anglia vocatur, & Brutus veniens de Graecia, qui fuit genitus de Troja, vastavit eam, & Occidit multos generis gigantei, & de reliquiis illius populi expulsi fuit Hollandia prius possessa, ac incolata, ac ipsi nomen acceperunt, quod Slavi essent. Et hoc fuit ante incarnationem Christi circa annos mille vel DCCCC. & tempore Samuelis, qui fuit Judex in Israel, & David Regis Israhel. Et iste populus contraxit matrimonia cum inferioribus Saxonibus & Frisonibus & populus multiplicatus est. Et divisus est populus, sic quod quidam profecti sunt ad illas partes, quae modo Australis Hollandia est, & quidam ad partem inferiorem Gelriae, qui populus tunc vocatus est de Wilten.

Post hoc tempore Julii Caesaris & LVIII. annis ante incarnatiomen Christi missus fuit idem Caesar a Senatu, ut omnes istas inferiores Regiones Romano Imperio subjugaret, & sic venit ad istos Slavos & Wilten, & dextras dedit eis, & in gratiam recepit, quia Julius Caesar eorum Capitaneum vicit & occidit, qui fuit gigas magnus nomine Braban.


Izvor je izvor jel tako? Izvoru se u zube ne gleda. Pogotovo ako je germanski, a ne slovenski.
 

Khal Drogo

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Ja mislim da su mozda integrisali u severnoj Africi jer su u Evropi bili suoceni sa unistenjem od Gota.
Да, то је свакако истина. Када смо већ "скренули" иако итекако има везе са темом, да се осврнемо Вандал (енгл.викиоедија овдје)
Vandals

The Vandals were a Germanic people who first inhabited what is now southern Poland. They established Vandal kingdoms on the Iberian Peninsula, Mediterranean islands and North Africa in the 5th century.[2]

The Vandals migrated to the area between the lower Oder and Vistula rivers in the 2nd century BC and settled in Silesia from around 120 BC.[3][4][5] They are associated with the Przeworsk culture and were possibly the same people as the Lugii. Expanding into Dacia during the Marcomannic Wars and to Pannonia during the Crisis of the Third Century, the Vandals were confined to Pannonia by the Goths around 330 AD, where they received permission to settle from Constantine the Great. Around 400, raids by the Huns from the east forced many Germanic tribes to migrate west into the territory of the Roman Empire and, fearing that they might be targeted next, the Vandals were also pushed westwards, crossing the Rhine into Gaul along with other tribes in 406.[6] In 409, the Vandals crossed the Pyrenees into the Iberian Peninsula, where the Hasdingi and the Silingi settled in Gallaecia (northwest Iberia) and Baetica (south-central Iberia).

On the orders of the Romans, the Visigoths invaded Iberia in 418. They almost wiped out the Alans and Silingi Vandals who voluntarily subjected themselves to the rule of Hasdingian leader Gunderic. Gunderic was then pushed from Gallaecia to Baetica by a Roman-Suebi coalition in 419. In 429, under king Genseric (reigned 428–477), the Vandals entered North Africa. By 439 they established a kingdom which included the Roman province of Africa as well as Sicily, Corsica, Sardinia, Malta and the Balearic Islands. They fended off several Roman attempts to recapture the African province, and sacked the city of Rome in 455. Their kingdom collapsed in the Vandalic War of 533–34, in which Emperor Justinian I's forces reconquered the province for the Eastern Roman Empire.

Renaissance and early-modern writers characterized the Vandals as barbarians, "sacking and looting" Rome. This led to the use of the term "vandalism" to describe any pointless destruction, particularly the "barbarian" defacing of artwork. However, some modern historians regard the Vandals in the transitional period from Late Antiquity to the Early Middle Ages as perpetuators, not destroyers, of Roman culture.[7]

Name


Neck ring with plug clasp from the Vandalic Treasure of Osztrópataka displayed at the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna, Austria.

Further information: Vendel and Aurvandil

The etymology of the name may be related to a Germanic verb *wand- "to wander" (English wend, German wandeln). The Germanic mythological figure of Aurvandil "shining wanderer; dawn wanderer, evening star", or "Shining Vandal" is reported as one of the "Germanic Dioscuri". R. Much has forwarded the theory that the tribal name Vandal reflects worship of Aurvandil or "the Dioscuri", probably involving an origin myth that the Vandalic kings were descended from Aurvandil (comparable to the case of many other Germanic tribal names).[8]

Some medieval authors applied the ethnonym "Vandals" to West Slavs: Veneti, Wends, Lusatians or Poles.[9][10][11] It was once thought that the Slovenes were the descendants of the Vandals, but this is not the view of modern scholars.[12]

The name of the Vandals has been connected to that of Vendel, the name of a province in Uppland, Sweden, which is also eponymous of the Vendel Period of Swedish prehistory, corresponding to the late Germanic Iron Age leading up to the Viking Age. The connection would be that Vendel is the original homeland of the Vandals prior to the Migration Period, and retains their tribal name as a toponym. Further possible homelands of the Vandals in Scandinavia are Vendsyssel in Denmark and Hallingdal in Norway.[citation needed]

Classification

As the Vandals eventually came to live outside of Germania, they were not considered Germani by ancient Roman authors. Neither other East Germanic-speaking groups such as the Goths, nor Norsemen (early Scandinavians), were counted among the Germani by the Romans.[13]

Since the Vandals spoke a Germanic language and belonged to early Germanic culture, they are classified as a Germanic people by modern scholars.[14]

History
Origins


Germanic and Proto-Slavic tribes of Central Europe around 3rd century BC.


Tribes of Central Europe in the mid-1st century AD. The Vandals/Lugii are depicted in green, in the area of modern Poland.
Early classical sources

The earliest mention of the Vandals is from Pliny the Elder, who used the term Vandili in a broad way to define one of the major groupings of all Germanic peoples. Tribes within this category who he mentions are the Burgundiones, Varini, Carini (otherwise unknown), and the Gutones.[15]

Tacitus mentioned the Vandilii, but only in a passage explaining legends about the origins of the Germanic peoples. He names them as one of the groups sometimes thought to be one of the oldest divisions of these peoples, along with the Marsi, Gambrivii, Suebi but does not say where they live, or which peoples are within this category. On the other hand, Tacitus and Ptolemy give information about the position of Varini, Burgundians, and Gutones in this period, and these indications suggest that the Vandals in this period lived between the Oder and Vistula rivers.[16]

Ptolemy furthermore mentioned the Silingi who were later counted as Vandals, as living south of the Semnones, who were Suebians living on the Elbe, and stretching to the Oder.[17]

The Hasdingi, who later led the invasion of Carthage, do not appear in written records until the second century and the time of the Marcomannic wars.[18] The Lacringi appear in 3rd century records.[19]

Lugii

Main article: Lugii

The Lugii, who were also mentioned in early classical sources in the same region, are likely to have been the same people as the Vandals.[5][5][20][21][22] The Lugii are mentioned by Strabo, Tacitus and Ptolemy as a large group of tribes between the Vistula and the Oder. Strabo and Ptolemy do not mention the Vandals at all, only the Lugii, Tacitus mentions them in a passage about the ancestry of the Germanic peoples without saying where they lived, and Pliny the Elder in contrast mentions the Vandals but not the Lugii.[16] Herwig Wolfram notes that "In all likelihood the Lugians and the Vandals were one cultic community that lived in the same region of the Oder in Silesia, where it was first under Celtic and then under Germanic domination."[21]

Walter Pohl and Walter Goffart have noted that Ptolemy seems to distinguish the Silingi from the Lugii, and in the second century the Hasdings, when they appear in the Roman record, are also distinguished from the Lugii.[23]

Medieval sources

Both Jordanes in his Getica and the Gotlandic Gutasaga tell that the Goths and Vandals migrated from southern Scandinavia[3][4][5][failed verification] to the area between the lower Oder and Vistula prior to the 2nd century BC, and settled in Silesia from around 120 BC.[5][failed verification]

According to Paulus Orosius, the Vandals, who lived originally in Scoringa, near Stockholm, Sweden, were of the same stock as the Suiones ("Swedes") and the Goths.[24][failed verification]

Przeworsk culture

Main article: Przeworsk culture

In archaeology, the Vandals are associated with the Przeworsk culture, but the culture probably extended over several central and eastern European peoples. Their origin, ethnicity and linguistic affiliation are heavily debated.[5][25][26][27] The bearers of the Przeworsk culture mainly practiced cremation and occasionally inhumation.[27]

Language

Main article: Vandalic language

Very little is known about the Vandalic language itself, but it is believed of the East Germanic linguistic branch, like Gothic. The Goths have left behind the only text corpus of the East Germanic language type, especially a 4th-century translation of the Gospels.[28]

Introduction into the Roman Empire


The Roman empire under Hadrian (ruled 117–38), showing the location of the Vandilii East Germanic tribes, then inhabiting the upper Vistula region (Poland).

In the 2nd century, two or three distinct Vandal peoples came to the attention of Roman authors, the Silingi, the Hasdingi, and possibly the Lacringi, who appear together with the Hasdingi. Only the Silingi had been mentioned in early Roman works, and are associated with Silesia.

These peoples appeared during the Marcomannic Wars, which resulted in widespread destruction and the first invasion of Italy in the Roman Empire period.[29] During the Marcomannic Wars (166–180) the Hasdingi (or Astingi), led by the kings Raus and Rapt (or Rhaus and Raptus) moved south, entering Dacia as allies of Rome.[30] However they eventually caused problems in Dacia and moved further south, towards the lower Danube area. Together with the Hasdingi were the Lacringi, who were possibly also Vandals.[31][32]

In about 271 AD the Roman Emperor Aurelian was obliged to protect the middle course of the Danube against Vandals. They made peace and stayed on the eastern bank of the Danube.[30]

In 278, Zosimus (1.67) reported that emperor Probus defeated Vandals and Burgundians near a river (sometimes proposed to be the Lech, and sent many of them to Britain. During this same period, the 11th panegyric to Maximian delivered in 291, reported two different conflicts outside the empire wherein Burgundians were associated with Alamanni, and other Vandals, probably Hasdingi in the Carpathian region, were associated with Gepids.


Reconstruction of an Iron Age warrior's garments representing a Vandalic man, with his hair in a "Suebian knot" (160 AD), Archaeological Museum of Kraków, Poland.

According to Jordanes' Getica, the Hasdingi came into conflict with the Goths around the time of Constantine the Great. At the time, these Vandals were living in lands later inhabited by the Gepids, where they were surrounded "on the east [by] the Goths, on the west [by] the Marcomanni, on the north [by] the Hermanduri and on the south [by] the Hister (Danube)." The Vandals were attacked by the Gothic king Geberic, and their king Visimar was killed.[33] The Vandals then migrated to neighbouring Pannonia, where, after Constantine the Great (in about 330) granted them lands on the right bank of the Danube, they lived for the next sixty years.[33][34]

In the late fourth century and early fifth, the famous magister militum Stilicho (died 408), the chief minister of the Emperor Honorius, was described as being of Vandal descent. Vandals raided the Roman province of Raetia in the winter of 401/402. From this, historian Peter Heather concludes that at this time the Vandals were located in the region around the Middle and Upper Danube.[35] It is possible that such Middle Danubian Vandals were part of the Gothic king Radagaisus' invasion of Italy in 405–406 AD.[36]

While the Hasdingian Vandals were already established in the Middle Danube for centuries, it is less clear where the Silingian Vandals had been living.[37]

In Gaul

In 406 the Vandals advanced from Pannonia travelling west along the Danube without much difficulty, but when they reached the Rhine, they met resistance from the Franks, who populated and controlled Romanized regions in northern Gaul. Twenty thousand Vandals, including Godigisel himself, died in the resulting battle, but then with the help of the Alans they managed to defeat the Franks, and on December 31, 406 the Vandals crossed the Rhine, probably while it was frozen, to invade Gaul, which they devastated terribly. Under Godigisel's son Gunderic, the Vandals plundered their way westward and southward through Aquitaine.
One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Vandals". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.

In Hispania


Migrations of the Vandals from Scandinavia through Dacia, Gaul, Iberia, and into North Africa. Grey: Roman Empire.

On October 13, 409 they crossed the Pyrenees into the Iberian peninsula. There, the Hasdingi received land from the Romans, as foederati, in Asturia (Northwest) and the Silingi in Hispania Baetica (South), while the Alans got lands in Lusitania (West) and the region around Carthago Nova.[38] The Suebi also controlled part of Gallaecia. The Visigoths, who invaded Iberia on the orders of the Romans before receiving lands in Septimania (Southern France), crushed the Silingi Vandals in 417 and the Alans in 418, killing the western Alan king Attaces.[39] The remainder of his people and the remnants of the Silingi, who were nearly wiped out, subsequently appealed to the Vandal king Gunderic to accept the Alan crown. Later Vandal kings in North Africa styled themselves Rex Wandalorum et Alanorum ("King of the Vandals and Alans"). In 419 AD the Hasdingi Vandals were defeated by a joint Roman-Suebi coalition. Gunderic fled to Baetica, where he was also proclaimed king of the Silingi Vandals.[5] In 422 Gunderic decisively defeated a Roman-Suebi-Gothic coalition led by the Roman patrician Castinus at the Battle of Tarraco.[40][41] It is likely that many Roman and Gothic troops deserted to Gunderic following the battle.[41] For the next five years, according to Hydatius, Gunderic created widespread havoc in the western Mediterranean.[41] In 425, the Vandals pillaged the Balearic Islands, Hispania and Mauritania, sacking Carthago Spartaria (Cartagena) and Hispalis (Seville) in 425.[41] The capture of the maritime city of Carthago Spartaria enabled the Vandals to engage in widespread naval activities.[41] In 428 Gunderic captured Hispalis for a second time but died while laying siege to the city's church.[41] He was succeeded by his half-brother Genseric, who although he was illegitimate (his mother was a Roman slave) had held a prominent position at the Vandal court, rising to the throne unchallenged.[42] In 429 The Vandals departed Spain which remained almost totally in Roman hands until 439, when the Sueves, confined to Gallaecia moved south and captured Emerita Augusta (Mérida), the see city of Roman administration for the whole peninsula.[43]

Genseric is often regarded by historians as the most able barbarian leader of the Migration Period.[44] Michael Frassetto writes that he probably contributed more to the destruction of Rome than any of his contemporaries.[44] Although the barbarians controlled Hispania, they still comprised a tiny minority among a much larger Hispano-Roman population, approximately 200,000 out of 6,000,000.[38] Shortly after seizing the throne, Genseric was attacked from the rear by a large force of Suebi under the command of Heremigarius who had managed to take Lusitania.[45] This Suebi army was defeated near Mérida and its leader Hermigarius drowned in the Guadiana River while trying to flee.[45]

It is possible that the name Al-Andalus (and its derivative Andalusia) is derived from the Arabic adoption of the name of the Vandals.[46][47]

Kingdom in North Africa
Establishment

Main article: Vandal Kingdom


The Vandal Kingdom at its greatest extent in the 470s


Coin of Bonifacius Comes Africae (422–431 CE), who was defeated by the Vandals.[48]

The Vandals under Genseric (also known as Geiseric) crossed to Africa in 429.[49] Although numbers are unknown and some historians debate the validity of estimates, based on Procopius' assertion that the Vandals and Alans numbered 80,000 when they moved to North Africa,[50] Peter Heather estimates that they could have fielded an army of around 15,000–20,000.[51]

According to Procopius, the Vandals came to Africa at the request of Bonifacius, the military ruler of the region.[52] Seeking to establish himself as an independent ruler in Africa or even become Roman Emperor, Bonifacius had defeated several Roman attempts to subdue him, until he was mastered by the newly appointed Gothic count of Africa, Sigisvult, who captured both Hippo Regius and Carthage.[44] It is possible that Bonifacius had sought Genseric as an ally against Sigisvult, promising him a part of Africa in return.[44]

Advancing eastwards along the coast, the Vandals were confronted on the Numidian border in May–June 430 by Bonifacius. Negotiations broke down, and Bonifacius was soundly defeated.[53][54] Bonifacius subsequently barricaded himself inside Hippo Regius with the Vandals besieging the city.[49] Inside, Saint Augustine and his priests prayed for relief from the invaders, knowing full well that the fall of the city would spell conversion or death for many Roman Christians.[citation needed]

On 28 August 430, three months into the siege, St. Augustine (who was 75 years old) died,[55] perhaps from starvation or stress, as the wheat fields outside the city lay dormant and unharvested. The death of Augustine shocked the Regent of the Western Roman Empire, Galla Placidia, who feared the consequences if her realm lost its most important source of grain.[54] She raised a new army in Italy and convinced her nephew in Constantinople, the Eastern Roman Emperor Theodosius II, to send an army to North Africa led by Aspar.[54]

Around July–August 431, Genseric raised the siege of Hippo Regius,[53] which enabled Bonifacius to retreat from Hippo Regius to Carthage, where he was joined by Aspar's army. Some time in the summer of 432, Genseric soundly defeated the joint forces of both Bonifacius and Aspar, which enabled him to seize Hippo Regius unopposed.[54] Genseric and Aspar subsequently negotiated a peace treaty of some sorts.[53] Upon seizing Hippo Regius, Genseric made it the first capital of the Vandal kingdom.[56]

The Romans and the Vandals concluded a treaty in 435 giving the Vandals control of the Mauretania and the western half of Numidia. Genseric chose to break the treaty in 439 when he invaded the province of Africa Proconsularis and seized Carthage on October 19.[57] The city was captured without a fight; the Vandals entered the city while most of the inhabitants were attending the races at the hippodrome. Genseric made it his capital, and styled himself the King of the Vandals and Alans, to denote the inclusion of the Alans of northern Africa into his alliance.[citation needed] His forces occupied Sardinia, Corsica and the Balearic Islands, he built his kingdom into a powerful state. His siege of Palermo in 440 was a failure as was the second attempt to invade Sicily near Agrigento in 442 (the Vandals occupied the island from 468–476 when it was ceded to Odovacer).[58] Historian Cameron suggests that the new Vandal rule may not have been unwelcomed by the population of North Africa as the great landowners were generally unpopular.[59]

The impression given by ancient sources such as Victor of Vita, Quodvultdeus, and Fulgentius of Ruspe was that the Vandal take-over of Carthage and North Africa led to widespread destruction. However, recent archaeological investigations have challenged this assertion. Although Carthage's Odeon was destroyed, the street pattern remained the same and some public buildings were renovated. The political centre of Carthage was the Byrsa Hill. New industrial centres emerged within towns during this period.[60] Historian Andy Merrills uses the large amounts of African Red Slip ware discovered across the Mediterranean dating from the Vandal period of North Africa to challenge the assumption that the Vandal rule of North Africa was a time of economic instability.[61] When the Vandals raided Sicily in 440, the Western Roman Empire was too preoccupied with war with Gaul to react. Theodosius II, emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire, dispatched an expedition to deal with the Vandals in 441; however, it only progressed as far as Sicily. The Western Empire under Valentinian III secured peace with the Vandals in 442.[62] Under the treaty the Vandals gained Byzacena, Tripolitania, and the eastern half of Numidia, and were confirmed in control of Proconsular Africa[63] as well as the Vandal Kingdom as the first barbarian state officially recognized as an independent kingdom in former Roman territory instead of foederati.[64] The Empire retained western Numidia and the two Mauretanian provinces until 455.

Sack of Rome

Main article: Sack of Rome (455)


The Sack of Rome, Karl Briullov, 1833–1836

During the next thirty-five years, with a large fleet, Genseric looted the coasts of the Eastern and Western Empires. Vandal activity in the Mediterranean was so substantial that the sea's name in Old English was Wendelsæ (i. e. Sea of the Vandals).[65] After Attila the Hun's death, however, the Romans could afford to turn their attention back to the Vandals, who were in control of some of the richest lands of their former empire.

In an effort to bring the Vandals into the fold of the Empire, Valentinian III offered his daughter's hand in marriage to Genseric's son. Before this treaty could be carried out, however, politics again played a crucial part in the blunders of Rome. Petronius Maximus killed Valentinian III and claimed the Western throne. Diplomacy between the two factions broke down, and in 455 with a letter from the Empress Licinia Eudoxia, begging Genseric's son to rescue her, the Vandals took Rome, along with the Empress and her daughters Eudocia and Placidia.

The chronicler Prosper of Aquitaine[66] offers the only fifth-century report that, on 2 June 455, Pope Leo the Great received Genseric and implored him to abstain from murder and destruction by fire, and to be satisfied with pillage. Whether the pope's influence saved Rome is, however, questioned. The Vandals departed with countless valuables. Eudoxia and her daughter Eudocia were taken to North Africa.[63]

Consolidation


Barbarian kingdoms and tribes after the end of the Western Roman Empire in 476

In 456 a Vandal fleet of 60 ships threatening both Gaul and Italy was ambushed and defeated at Agrigentum and Corsica by the Western Roman general Ricimer.[67] In 457 a mixed Vandal-Berber army returning with loot from a raid in Campania were soundly defeated in a surprise attack by Western Emperor Majorian at the mouth of the Garigliano river.[68]

As a result of the Vandal sack of Rome and piracy in the Mediterranean, it became important to the Roman Empire to destroy the Vandal kingdom. In 460, Majorian launched an expedition against the Vandals, but was defeated at the Battle of Cartagena. In 468 the Western and Eastern Roman empires launched an enormous expedition against the Vandals under the command of Basiliscus, which reportedly was composed of 100,000 soldiers and 1,000 ships. The Vandals defeated the invaders at the Battle of Cap Bon, capturing the Western fleet, and destroying the Eastern through the use of fire ships.[62] Following up the attack, the Vandals tried to invade the Peloponnese, but were driven back by the Maniots at Kenipolis with heavy losses.[69] In retaliation, the Vandals took 500 hostages at Zakynthos, hacked them to pieces and threw the pieces overboard on the way to Carthage.[69] In 469 the Vandals gained control of Sicily but were forced by Odoacer to relinquish it in 447 except for the western port of Lilybaeum (lost in 491 after a failed attempt on their part to re-take the island).[70]

In the 470s, the Romans abandoned their policy of war against the Vandals. The Western general Ricimer reached a treaty with them,[62] and in 476 Genseric was able to conclude a "perpetual peace" with Constantinople. Relations between the two states assumed a veneer of normality.[71] From 477 onwards, the Vandals produced their own coinage, restricted to bronze and silver low-denomination coins. The high-denomination imperial money was retained, demonstrating in the words of Merrills "reluctance to usurp the imperial prerogative".[72]

Although the Vandals had fended off attacks from the Romans and established hegemony over the islands of the western Mediterranean, they were less successful in their conflict with the Berbers. Situated south of the Vandal kingdom, the Berbers inflicted two major defeats on the Vandals in the period 496–530.[62]

Domestic religious tensions


A denarius of the reign of Hilderic

Differences between the Arian Vandals and their Trinitarian subjects (including both Catholics and Donatists) were a constant source of tension in their African state. Catholic bishops were exiled or killed by Genseric and laymen were excluded from office and frequently suffered confiscation of their property.[73] He protected his Catholic subjects when his relations with Rome and Constantinople were friendly, as during the years 454–57, when the Catholic community at Carthage, being without a head, elected Deogratias bishop. The same was also the case during the years 476–477 when Bishop Victor of Cartenna sent him, during a period of peace, a sharp refutation of Arianism and suffered no punishment.[citation needed] Huneric, Genseric's successor, issued edicts against Catholics in 483 and 484 in an effort to marginalise them and make Arianism the primary religion in North Africa.[74] Generally most Vandal kings, except Hilderic, persecuted Trinitarian Christians to a greater or lesser extent, banning conversion for Vandals, exiling bishops and generally making life difficult for Trinitarians.[citation needed]

Decline

According to the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia: "Genseric, one of the most powerful personalities of the "era of the Migrations", died on 25 January 477, at the great age of around 88 years. According to the law of succession which he had promulgated, the oldest male member of the royal house was to succeed. Thus he was succeeded by his son Huneric (477–484), who at first tolerated Catholics, owing to his fear of Constantinople, but after 482 began to persecute Manichaeans and Catholics."[75]

Gunthamund (484–496), his cousin and successor, sought internal peace with the Catholics and ceased persecution once more. Externally, the Vandal power had been declining since Genseric's death, and Gunthamund lost early in his reign all but a small wedge of western Sicily to the Ostrogoths which was lost in 491 and had to withstand increasing pressure from the autochthonous Moors.

According to the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia: "While Thrasamund (496–523), owing to his religious fanaticism, was hostile to Catholics, he contented himself with bloodless persecutions".[75]

Turbulent end

Main article: Vandalic War


Belisarius may be this bearded figure on the right of Emperor Justinian I in the mosaic in the Church of San Vitale, Ravenna, which celebrates the reconquest of Italy by the Byzantine army under the skillful leadership of Belisarius

Hilderic (523–530) was the Vandal king most tolerant towards the Catholic Church. He granted it religious freedom; consequently Catholic synods were once more held in North Africa. However, he had little interest in war, and left it to a family member, Hoamer. When Hoamer suffered a defeat against the Moors, the Arian faction within the royal family led a revolt, raising the banner of national Arianism, and his cousin Gelimer (530–533) became king. Hilderic, Hoamer and their relatives were thrown into prison.[76]

Byzantine Emperor Justinian I declared war, with the stated intention of restoring Hilderic to the Vandal throne. The deposed Hilderic was murdered in 533 on Gelimer's orders.[76] While an expedition was en route, a large part of the Vandal army and navy was led by Tzazo, Gelimer's brother, to Sardinia to deal with a rebellion. As a result, the armies of the Byzantine Empire commanded by Belisarius were able to land unopposed 10 miles (16 km) from Carthage. Gelimer quickly assembled an army,[77] and met Belisarius at the Battle of Ad Decimum; the Vandals were winning the battle until Gelimer's brother Ammatas and nephew Gibamund fell in battle. Gelimer then lost heart and fled. Belisarius quickly took Carthage while the surviving Vandals fought on.[78]

On December 15, 533, Gelimer and Belisarius clashed again at the Battle of Tricamarum, some 20 miles (32 km) from Carthage. Again, the Vandals fought well but broke, this time when Gelimer's brother Tzazo fell in battle. Belisarius quickly advanced to Hippo, second city of the Vandal Kingdom, and in 534 Gelimer surrendered to the Byzantine conqueror, ending the Kingdom of the Vandals.


Vandal cavalryman, c. AD 500, from a mosaic pavement at Bordj Djedid near Carthage

North Africa, comprising north Tunisia and eastern Algeria in the Vandal period, became a Roman province again, from which the Vandals were expelled. Many Vandals went to Saldae (today called Béjaïa in north Algeria) where they integrated themselves with the Berbers. Many others were put into imperial service or fled to the two Gothic kingdoms (Ostrogothic Kingdom and Visigothic Kingdom). Some Vandal women married Byzantine soldiers and settled in north Algeria and Tunisia. The choicest Vandal warriors were formed into five cavalry regiments, known as Vandali Iustiniani, stationed on the Persian frontier. Some entered the private service of Belisarius.[79] The 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia states that "Gelimer was honourably treated and received large estates in Galatia. He was also offered the rank of a patrician but had to refuse it because he was not willing to change his Arian faith".[75] In the words of historian Roger Collins: "The remaining Vandals were then shipped back to Constantinople to be absorbed into the imperial army. As a distinct ethnic unit they disappeared".[77] Some of the few Vandals remained at North Africa while more migrated back to Spain.[6] In 546 the Vandalic Dux of Numidia, Guntarith, defected from the Byzantines and raised a rebellion with Moorish support. He was able to capture Carthage, but was assassinated by the Byzantines shortly afterwards.
И они јесу у V вијеку били притискани и претило им је уништење од стране Гота који су у том времене били доминантнији. Зато су и били присиљени на миграцију.
Но, заједнички проблем и Гота и Вандала су били тада Хуни, и једни и други су се почетком V вијека нашли на путу експанзији.Хуна на запад
Europe AD 400.jpg

Франци су за разлику од Гота и Вандали (и дргих германских народа који су имали пребивлиште на истоку) имали пребивалиште сјеверозападно, подалеко од војних похода Хуна, нису имали тих деценија додира са Хунима, јесу ратовали некад против Хуна, некад као њихови савезнци (а у бици на Каталунским пољима 451.године салијски Франци су ратовали на страни Рима, а остали Франци као савезници Атиле, тако да су се у тој бици два огранка Франака борили једни против других), али нису били притиснути и на путу хунских похода који су више били фокусирани јужније према Галији и богатим римским провинцијама.
Тако су Готи били присиљени узмицати пред Хунима, а Вандали и пред Хунима и пред Готима док нису нову отаџбину нашли у сјеверној Африци гдје ће успоставити моћно краљебство. једно од неколико германских краљевстава у V вијеку.
Europe_and_the_Near_East_at_476_AD.png

Sukob ocigledno nije bio samo verski jer deo Vandala je primio Nikejansku veru sto im nije pomoglo mislim da su Silinge u pitanju a Hadsinge su bili arijanci kao i ostali koji su primili veru u vrene cara Konstantina.
Да, то је истина. Заправо, презадњи краљ Вандала и Алана Хилдерик (523.-530.), иако немамо потврде да је и сам прешао на ортодоксно хришћанство, фаворизовао је у краљевству ортодоксно хришћанство (религију његове мајке) у односу на аријанско којем је припадала значајна већина вјерника у краљевству. То је и један од разлога, могуће и најважнији, зашто га је Галимер свргнуо, након чега ће почети прогон ортодоксних хришћана који ће спас наћи у Византији, што ће бити поводом рата између Вандалског краљевства и Византије.
 

Slaven777

Legenda
Poruka
52.438
Pošto upravo spazih vezano za jednu susednu temu, evo zvaničnog romejskog adresiranja za Franke koje je sastavio car Konstantin VII Porfirogenit 957-959. godine, u 48. glavi II knjige njegovog Spisa o ceremonijama; jednog od njegovih najvećih i najznačajnijih dela.

Eisos.JPG


εἰς τὸν ῥῆγα Φραγγίας. βούλλα χρυσῆ. "ἐν ὀνόματι τοῦ πατρὸς καὶ τοῦ υἱοῦ καὶ τοῦ ἁγίου πνεύματος, τοῦ ἑνὸς καὶ μόνου ἀληθινοῦ Θεοῦ ἡμῶν. Κωνσταντῖνος καὶ Ῥωμανὸς, πιστοὶ ἐν αὐτῷ τῷ Θεῷ, ὑψηλοὶ αὔγουστοι αὐτοκράτορες μεγάλοι βασιλεῖς Ῥωμαίων, τῷ ἠγαπημένῳ, πεποθημένῳ καὶ πνευματικῷ ἡμῶν ἀδελφῷ ὁ δεῖνα τῷ εὐγενεστάτῳ περιβλέπτῳ ῥηγὶ Φραγγίας."
 

Khal Drogo

Domaćin
Poruka
3.810
Дагоберт I, најстарији син Клотара II,краљ Аустразије 623–634.године, краљ свих Франака 629–634 и краљ Неустрије и Бургундије 629–639 бјеше посљедњи краљ из династије Меровинга који је имао било какву стварну краљевску моћ.
dagobert-i-c-603-639-king-of-austrasia-neustria-and-burgundy-king.jpg

Једно кратко вријеме објединио је власт над свим франачким земљама, сузбијао би побуне племића, посебно аустразијских, а вријеме његове владавине обиљежио је рат против моћног краља Самоа и Словена на источним границама када су Франци 631.године тешко поражени.
Имао је и једну не по добром упампћену епизоду, када је око 631-32.године кану Алциоку (не треба га бркати са Алцеком или Алзеком који је битисао 30ак година касније) и Бугарима обећао уточиште и заштиту у Баварској, али је једне ноћи изиграо договор и обећање, те измасакрирао 9.000 Бугара.

Након Дагоберта, владавина меровиншких краљева се свела на протоколарне и церемонијалне обавезе, називани су и краљевима љенштинама, а краљевством би владао "начелник двора", титула која одговара везиру у муслиманском свијету или рецимо премијеру у данашњем времену.

И ту је посебно важна била улога Пипина II Херсталског (овдје)
Pepin of Herstal

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Mayor of the Palace of Burgundy
Mayor of the Palace of Neustria
Mayor of the Palace of Austrasia
Duke and Prince of the Franks
Pepin ΙΙ
Reign687 – 714
SuccessorCharles Martel
Reign680 – 714
PredecessorWulfoald
SuccessorTheudoald
Reign687 – 695
PredecessorBerthar
SuccessorGrimoald
Reign687 – 695
PredecessorPosition reestablished
SuccessorDrogo
Born635
Died16 December 714
Jupille, Austrasia
BurialChevremont Basilica, Liège
SpousePlectrude, Alpaida
IssueGrimoald
Drogo
Charles
Childebrand
Others
HousePippinids
FatherAnsegisel
MotherBegga
Pepin II (c. 635 – 16 December 714), commonly known as Pepin of Herstal, was a Frankish statesman and military leader who de facto ruled Francia as the Mayor of the Palace from 680 until his death. He took the title Duke and Prince of the Franks upon his conquest of all the Frankish realms.
The son of the powerful Frankish statesman Ansegisel, Pepin worked to establish his family, the Pippinids, as the strongest in Francia. He became Mayor of the Palace in Austrasia in 680. Pepin subsequently embarked on several wars to expand his power. He united all the Frankish realms by the conquests of Neustria and Burgundy in 687. In foreign conflicts, Pepin increased the power of the Franks by his subjugation of the Alemanni, the Frisians, and the Franconians. He also began the process of evangelisation in Germany.
Pepin's statesmanship was notable for the further diminution of Merovingian royal authority, and for the acceptance of the undisputed right to rule for his family. Therefore, Pepin was able to name as heir his grandson Theudoald. But this was not accepted by his powerful son Charles Martel, leading to a civil war after his death in which the latter emerged victorious.

Background
Pepin, sometimes called Pepin II and Pepin the Middle, was the grandson and namesake of Pepin I the Elder through the marriage of Pepin I's daughter Begga to Ansegisel.[1] He was also the grandfather of Pepin the Short and great-grandfather of Charlemagne. That marriage united the two houses of the Pippinids and the Arnulfings which created what would be called the Carolingian dynasty. Pepin II was probably born in Herstal (Héristal), modern Belgium (where his centre of power lay), whence his byname (sometimes "of Heristal").

Rise to power
As mayor of Austrasia, Pepin and Martin, the duke of Laon, fought the Neustrian mayor Ebroin, who had designs on all Francia. Ebroin defeated the Austrasians in the Battle of Lucofao and came close to uniting all the Franks under his rule; however, he was assassinated in 681, the victim of a combined attack by his numerous enemies. Pepin immediately made peace with his successor, Waratton.

However, Waratton's successor, Berthar, and the Neustrian king Theuderic III, who, since 679, was nominal king of all the Franks, made war on Austrasia. The king and his mayor were decisively defeated at the Battle of Tertry (Textrice) in the Vermandois in 687. Berthar and Theuderic withdrew themselves to Paris, where Pepin followed and eventually forced on them a peace treaty with the condition that Berthar leave his office. Pepin was created mayor in all three Frankish kingdoms (Austrasia, Neustria, and Burgundy) and began calling himself Duke and Prince of the Franks (dux et princeps Francorum).[2] In the ensuing quarrels, Berthar killed his mother-in-law Ansfled and fled. His wife Anstrude married Pepin's eldest son Drogo, Duke of Champagne, and Pepin's place in Neustria was secured.

Duke and Prince of the Franks
The Neustrians barely tolerated an Austrasian overlord, but Pepin preferred to put these local resistances aside to deal with Germany. Over the next several years, Pepin subdued the Alemanni, Frisians, and Franconians, bringing them within the Frankish sphere of influence. Between 690 and 692, Utrecht fell. This gave the Franks control of important trade routes on the Rhine to the North Sea. He also supported the missionary work of Willibrord.[3] In 695, he placed Drogo in the Burgundian mayorship and his other son, Grimoald, in the Neustrian one.

Around 670, Pepin had married Plectrude, who had inherited substantial estates in the Moselle region. She was the mother of Drogo of Champagne and Grimoald II, both of whom died before their father. However, Pepin also had a mistress (or possibly, a second wife) named Alpaida (or Chalpaida) who bore him two more sons: Charles Martel and Childebrand.

Death and succession
Just before Pepin's death, Plectrude convinced him to disinherit the sons he had with his mistress Alpaida in favour of his grandson, Theudoald (the son of Pepin and Plectrude's son Grimoald), who was still a young child (and amenable to Plectrude's control). Pepin died suddenly at the age of 79 on 16 December 714, at Jupille (in modern Belgium). His grandchildren through Plectrude claimed themselves to be Pepin's true successors and, with the help of Plectrude, tried to maintain the position of mayor of the palace after Pepin's death. However, Charles (son of Pepin and Alpaida) had gained favour among the Austrasians, primarily for his military prowess and ability to keep them well supplied with booty from his conquests. Despite the efforts of Plectrude to silence her child's rival by imprisoning him, he became the sole mayor of the palace—and de facto ruler of Francia—after a civil war which lasted for more than three years after Pepin's death.

Cultural uses
In 2018, Dutch production company Farmhouse will release a movie called Redbad (film), based on the historical Redbad and directed by Roel Reiné. Jonathan Banks will play Pepin of Herstal, who is the main villain in this movie.[4]

Sources
External links

Pepin of Herstal
Arnulfing Dynasty
Born:
635 Died: 714
Preceded by
Wulfoald
Mayor of the Palace of Austrasia
680–714
Succeeded by
Theudoald
Preceded by
Berthar
Mayor of the Palace of Neustria
688–695
Succeeded by
Grimoald the Younger
Mayor of the Palace of Burgundy
688–695
Succeeded by
Drogo
New title Duke of the Franks
687–714
Succeeded by
Charles Martel
који је "де факто" владао франачким краљевством од 680их до своје смрти 16. децембра 714.године.
Изузетно способан државник и војсковођа који је своју породицу Пипинида успоставио као најмоћнију у Франачкој.
1603998655967.png

Прве године владања (у улози начелника двора) Аустразијом нису биле успјепне на бојном пољу, но након атентата на неустријског мајордома Еброина 681. године, вјештим дипломатским играма те након побједе у бици код Тертија 687.године постаје начелником двора и "де факто" владар у сва три франачка краљевства (Аустразија, Неустрија и Бургундија), а почиње се називати војводом и кнезом Франака.
Иако је у Неустрији било снажног отпора аустразијском владару, Пипин се ипак окренуо другим непријатељима и ширењу краљевства, потчинио је својој власти Алемане, Фризијце те проширио границе краљевства на исток.
За његове "де факто" владавине Франачка биљежи успон и постаје доминантна сила у Европи.
Ипак вријеме моћне Франачке какву памтимо почиње тек након његове смрти, наслиједиће га не неко од његових законитих синова, већ ванбрачни син илити копиле што би рекли у колоквијалном говору, изузетно способни војсковођа Карло Мартел под чијим вођством ће за Франачку почети нова ера.

2018.године Пипин Херсталски и Карло Мартел су обрађени кроз играни филм "Редбад", имамо га овдје са српским преводом
Филм у којем су обрађене стварне историјске личности, Карло Мартел је баш масимално оцрњен, није могао грђе проћи, филм реално има подоста мањкавости, доста је ту и фикције, али није лош за упознавање са тим временом.
 
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Сребрена

Iskusan
Moderator
Poruka
6.949
...Da, то предање о поријеклу Франака постоји, имамо га у рукопису Liber Historiae Francorum које је познатије под насловом Gesta regum Francorum .....

Кад сам стигла до овог дела теме, потпуно сам се збунила. Молим да ми појасните. Ево шта ми ме највише збуњује:
-ако су Франци потомци Тројанаца (искоришћених па одбачених од стране Римљана), онда су досељеници из Азије (који су се мало задржали око каспијског језера) и потомци су им данашњи Немци (Французи)???!
-Пошто је груба данашња генетска слика Немаца Р1а и Р1б (Келти и Словени), постоји могућност да су Тројанци генетски исто што и Келти?
-или су Тројанци само једна група која је постала "германско" племе променом терминологије, као и нека келтска племена, па су сви заједно, помешани, постали Франци?!?


-или су Тројанци само једна група која је постала "германско" племе променом терминологије, као и нека келтска племена, па су сви заједно, помешани, постали Франци?!?[/QUOTE]
 

Slaven777

Legenda
Poruka
52.438
...Da, то предање о поријеклу Франака постоји, имамо га у рукопису Liber Historiae Francorum које је познатије под насловом Gesta regum Francorum .....

Кад сам стигла до овог дела теме, потпуно сам се збунила. Молим да ми појасните. Ево шта ми ме највише збуњује:
-ако су Франци потомци Тројанаца (искоришћених па одбачених од стране Римљана), онда су досељеници из Азије (који су се мало задржали око каспијског језера) и потомци су им данашњи Немци (Французи)???!
-Пошто је груба данашња генетска слика Немаца Р1а и Р1б (Келти и Словени), постоји могућност да су Тројанци генетски исто што и Келти?
-или су Тројанци само једна група која је постала "германско" племе променом терминологије, као и нека келтска племена, па су сви заједно, помешани, постали Франци?!?


-или су Тројанци само једна група која је постала "германско" племе променом терминологије, као и нека келтска племена, па су сви заједно, помешани, постали Франци?!?
To je samo tradicija.
 

Khal Drogo

Domaćin
Poruka
3.810
-ако су Франци потомци Тројанаца (искоришћених па одбачених од стране Римљана), онда су досељеници из Азије (који су се мало задржали око каспијског језера) и потомци су им данашњи Немци (Французи)???!
Па написах да то предање имамо забиљежено у рукопису "Liber Historiae Francorum" (овдје), Славен је већ примијетио;
To je samo tradicija.
Могу само поновити
Предање тако иде, колико има и да ли уопште има мрва истине, по обичају тешко је дати коначан суд, "примићемо га к знању".
Сами Франци, ајд да бидемо слободни, јесу супстрат у етногенези данашњих Њемаца и Француза, али у тој етногенези су учешћа имали и бројни други народи. И то би захтијевало засебну тему.
-Пошто је груба данашња генетска слика Немаца Р1а и Р1б (Келти и Словени), постоји могућност да су Тројанци генетски исто што и Келти?
Ух, и код генетике као и код историје ваља избјегавати поједностављивање,
Код данашеих Њемаца веома мало су присутне подгране R1a хаплогрупе, M417-Z283-Z280 и M417-Z283-M458 (код овог огранка имамо нешто већу концентрацију на сјевероистоку Њемачке, вјероватно "заслугом" Пољака и лужичких Срба) које су у високом % присутне код словенских народа.
Зато је код Њемаца заступљен доста висок % гране M417--L664 и подгране M417-Z283-Z284 које су јако слабо заступљене код словенских арода. Наравно пишем о хаплогрупи R1a.
Што се Келта тиче, нису први, али они су већ у III вијеку п.н.е. у својим походима прокрстарили Европом уздуж и попријеко, свакако направили и генетски дар-мар. Ту бих био уздржан у вези неке могуће везе Тројанаца и Келта.
 

Slaven777

Legenda
Poruka
52.438
Ne moramo samo primiti k znanju; mislim da ima dovoljno izvora u ovom slučaju da se pristupi i dekonstrukciji, da vidimo od koga je to krenulo, ko je te priče o trojanskom poreklu Franaka izmislio i zašto tj. pod kojim uslovima, kao i kako su se širile (i u kojim varijantama).

Uzori su, naravno, čvrsto povezani sa krunisanjem za rimskog cara 800. godine.
 

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