Sta bi bilo... sta mislite da li je ovo izvodljivo!!!
Strana 1 od 2 12 PoslednjaPoslednja
Prikazujem rezultate 1 do 25 od 30

Tema: Sta bi bilo... sta mislite da li je ovo izvodljivo!!!

  1. #1
    Aktivan član kalama (avatar)
    Reputaciona moć

    Podrazumevano Sta bi bilo... sta mislite da li je ovo izvodljivo!!!

    º º
    º A tactical manual for the revolutionary that º
    º was published by the Central Intelligence º
    º Agency and distributed to the Contras in º
    º Central America. º
    º º
    º Combat Arms urges gun owners in the United º
    º States to become very familiar with the º
    º contents of this manual and to discuss it º
    º among your family and friends. Liberty knows º
    º no peace. º
    º º


    Guerrilla warfare is essentially a political war. Therefore, its area
    of operations exceeds the territorial limits of conventional warfare, to
    penetrate the political entity itself: the "political animal" that
    Aristotle defined.

    In effect,the human being should be considered the priority objective
    in a political war. And conceived as the military target of guerrilla war,
    the human being has his most critical point in his mind. Once his mind has
    been reached, the"political animal" has been defeated, without necessarily
    receiving bullets.

    Guerrilla warfare is born and grows in the political environment; in
    the constant combat to dominate that area of political mentality that is
    inherent to all human beings and which collectively constitutes the
    "environment" in which guerrilla warfare moves, and which is where
    precisely its victory or failure is defined.

    This conception of guerrilla warfare as political war turns
    Psychological Operations into the decisive factor of the results. The
    target, then, is the minds of the population, all the population: our
    troops, the enemy troops and the civilian population.

    This book is a manual for the training of guerrillas in psychological
    operations, and its application to the concrete case of the Christian and
    democratic crusade being waged in Nicaragua by the Freedom Commandos.


  2. #2
    Aktivan član kalama (avatar)
    Reputaciona moć

    Podrazumevano Re: Sta bi bilo... sta mislite da li je ovo izvodljivo!!!


    1. Generalities

    The purpose of this book is to introduce the guerrilla student to the
    psychological operations techniques that will be of immediate and practical
    value to him in guerrilla warfare. This section is introductory and
    general; subsequent sections will cover each point set forth here in more

    The nature of the environment of guerrilla warfare does not permit
    sophisticated psychological operations, and it becomes necessary for the
    chiefs of groups, chiefs of detachments and squadron leaders to have the
    ability to carry out, with minimal instructions from the higher levels,
    psychological action operations with the contacts that are thoroughly aware
    of the situation, i.e. the foundations.

    2. Combatant-Propagandist Guerrillas

    In order to obtain the maximum results from the psychological
    operations in guerrilla warfare, every combatant should be as highly
    motivated to carry out propaganda face to face as he is a combatant. This
    means that the individual political awareness of the guerrilla of the
    reason for his struggle will be as acute as his ability to fight.

    Such a political awareness and motivation is obtained through the
    dynamic of groups and self-criticism, as a standard method of instruction
    for the guerrilla training and operations. Group discussions raise the
    spirit and improve the unity of thought of the guerrilla training and
    operations. Group discussions raise the spirit and improve the unity of
    thought of the guerrilla squads and exercise social pressure on the weak
    members to carry out a better role in future training or in combative
    action. Self-criticism is in terms of one's contribution or defects in his
    contribution to the cause, to the movement, the struggle, etc.; and gives a
    positive individual commitment to the mission of the group.

    The desired result is a guerrilla who can persuasively justify his
    actions when he comes into contact with any member of the People of
    Nicaragua, and especially with himself and his fellow guerrillas in dealing
    with the vicissitudes of guerrilla warfare. This means that every guerrilla
    will be persuasive in his face-to-face communication - propagandist-
    combatant - ins his contact with the people; he should be able to give 5 or
    10 logical reasons why, for example, a peasant should give him cloth,
    needle and thread to mend his clothes. When the guerrilla behaves in this
    manner, enemy propaganda will never succeed in making him an enemy in the
    eyes of the people. It also means that hunger, cold, fatigue and insecurity
    will have a meaning, psychologically, in the cause of the struggle due to
    his constant orientation.

    3. Armed Propaganda

    Armed propaganda includes every act carried out, and the good
    impression that this armed force causes will result in positive attitudes
    in the population toward that force; ad it does not include forced
    indoctrination. Armed propaganda improves the behavior of the population
    toward them, and it is not achieved by force.

    This means that a guerilla armed unit in a rural town will not give
    the impression that arms are their strength over the peasants, but rather
    that they are the strength of the peasants against the Sandinista
    government of repression. This is achieved through a close identification
    with the people, as follows: hanging up weapons and working together with
    them on their crops, in construction, in the harvesting of grains, in
    fishing, etc.; explanations to young men about basic weapons, e.g. giving
    them an unloaded weapon and letting them touch it, see it, etc.; describing
    in a rudimentary manner its operation; describing with simple slogans how
    weapons will serve the people to win their freedom; demanding the requests
    by the people for hospitals and education, reducing taxes, etc.

    All these acts have as their goal the creation of an identification of
    the people with the weapons and the guerrillas who carry them, so that the
    population feels that the weapons are, indirectly, their weapon to protect
    them and help them in the struggle against a regime of oppression. Implicit
    terror always accompanies weapons, since the people are internally "aware"
    that they can be used against them, but as long as explicit coercion is
    avoided, positive attitudes can be achieved with respect to the presence of
    armed guerrillas within the population.

    4. Armed Propaganda Teams

    Armed Propaganda Teams (EPA) are formed through a careful selection of
    persuasive and highly motivated guerrillas who move about within the
    population, encouraging the people to support the guerrillas and put up
    resistance against the enemy. It combines a high degree of political
    awareness and the "armed" propaganda ability of the guerrillas toward a
    planned, programmed, and controlled effort.

    The careful selection of the staff, based on their persuasiveness in
    informal discussions and their ability in combat, is more important than
    their degree of education or the training program. The tactics of the Armed
    Propaganda Teams are carried out covertly, and should be parallel to the
    tactical effort in guerrilla warfare. The knowledge of the psychology of
    the population is primary for the Armed Propaganda Teams, but much more
    intelligence data will be obtained from an EPA program in the area of

    5. Development and Control of the "Front" Organizations

    The development and control of "front" (or facade) organizations is
    carried out through subjective internal control at group meetings of
    "inside cadres," and the calculations of the time for the fusion of these
    combined efforts to be applied to the masses.

    Established citizens-doctors, lawyers, businessmen, teachers, etc.-
    will be recruited initially as "Social Crusaders" in typically "innocuous"
    movements in the area of operations. When their "involvement" with the
    clandestine organization is revealed to them, this supplies the
    psychological pressure to use them as "inside cadres" in groups to which
    they already belong or of which they can be members.

    Then they will receive instruction in techniques of persuasion over
    control of target groups to support our democratic revolution, through a
    gradual and skillful process. A cell control system isolates individuals
    from one another, and at the appropriate moment, their influence is used
    for the fusion of groups in a united national front.

    6. Control of Meetings and Mass Assemblies

    The control of mass meetings in support of guerrilla warfare is
    carried out internally through a covert commando element, bodyguards,
    messengers, shock forces (initiators of incidents), placard carriers (also
    used for making signals), shouters of slogans, everything under the control
    of the outside commando element.

    When the cadres are placed or recruited in organizations such as labor
    unions, youth groups agrarian organizations or professional associations,
    they will begin to manipulate the objectives of the groups. The
    psychological apparatus of our movement through inside cadres prepares a
    mental attitude which at the crucial moment can be turned into a fury of
    justified violence.

    Through a small group of guerrillas infiltrated within the masses this
    can be carried out; they will have the mission of agitating by giving the
    impression that there are many of them and that they have a large popular
    backing. Using the tactics of a force of 200-300 agitators, a demonstration
    can be created in which 10,000-20,000 persons take part.

    7. Support of Contacts with Their Roots in Reality

    The support of local contacts who are familiar with the deep reality
    is achieved through the exploitation of the social and political weaknesses
    of the target society, with propagandist-combatant guerrillas, armed
    propaganda, armed propaganda teams, cover organizations and mass meetings.

    The combatant-propagandist guerrilla is the result of a continuous
    program of indoctrination and motivation. They will have the mission of
    showing the people how great and fair our movement is in the eyes of all
    Nicaraguans and the world. Identifying themselves with our people, they
    will increase the sympathy towards our movement, which will result in
    greater support of the population for the freedom commandos, taking away
    support for the regime in power.

    Armed propaganda will extend this identification process of the people
    with the Christian guerrillas, providing converging points against the
    Sandinista regime.

    The Armed Propaganda Teams provide a several-stage program of
    persuasive planning in guerrilla warfare in all areas of the country. Also,
    these teams are the "eyes and ears" of our movement.

    The development and control of the cover organizations in guerrilla
    warfare will give our movement the ability to create a "whiplash" effect
    within the population when the order for fusion is given. When the
    infiltration and internal subjective control have been developed in a
    manner parallel to other guerrilla activities, a comandante of ours will
    literally be able to shake up the Sandinista structure, and replace it.

    The mass assemblies and meetings are the culmination of a wide base
    support among the population, and it comes about in the later phases of the
    operation. This is the moment in which the overthrow can be achieved and
    our revolution can become an open one, requiring the close collaboration of
    the entire population of the country, and of contacts with their roots in

  3. #3
    Aktivan član kalama (avatar)
    Reputaciona moć

    Podrazumevano Re: Sta bi bilo... sta mislite da li je ovo izvodljivo!!!


    1. Generalities

    The objective of this section is to familiarize the guerrilla with the
    techniques of psychological operations, which maximizes the social-
    psychological effect of a guerrilla movement, converting the guerrilla into
    a propagandist, in addition to being a combatant. The nature of the
    environment in guerrilla warfare does not permit sophisticated facilities
    for psychological operations, so that use should be made of the effective
    face-to-face persuasion of each guerrilla.

    2. Political Awareness

    The individual political awareness of the guerrilla, the reason for
    his struggle, will be as important as his ability in combat. This political
    awareness and motivation will be achieved:

    þ By improving the combat potential of the guerrilla by improving
    his motivation for fighting.

    þ By the guerrilla recognizing himself as a vital tie between the
    democratic guerrillas and the people, whose support is essential
    for the subsistence of both.

    þ By fostering the support of the population for the national
    insurgence through the support for the guerrillas of the locale,
    which provides a psychological basis in the population for
    politics after the victory has been achieved.

    þ By developing trust in the guerrillas and in the population, for
    the reconstruction of a local and national government.

    þ By promoting the value of participation by the guerrillas and the
    people in the civic affairs of the insurrection and in the
    national programs.

    þ By developing in each guerrilla the ability of persuasion face-
    to-face, at the local level, to win the support of the
    population, which is essential for success in guerrilla warfare.

    3. Group Dynamics

    This political awareness-building and motivation are attained by the
    use of group dynamics at the level of small units. The group discussion
    method and self-criticism are a general guerrilla training and operations

    Group discussions raise the spirit and increase the unity of thought
    in small guerrilla groups and exercise social pressure on the weakest
    members to better carry out their mission in training and future combat
    actions. These group discussions will give special emphasis to:

    þ Creating a favorable opinion of our movement. Through local and
    national history, make it clear that the Sandinista regime is
    "foreignizing," "repressive" and "imperialistic," and that even
    though there are some Nicaraguans within the government, point
    out that they are "puppets" of the power of the Soviets and
    Cubans, i.e. of foreign power.

    þ Always a local focus. Matters of an international nature will be
    explained only in support of local events in the guerrilla

    þ The unification of the nation is our goal. This means that the
    defeat of the Sandinista armed forces is our priority. Our
    insurrectional movement is a pluralistic political platform from
    which we are determined to win freedom, equality, a better
    economy with work facilities, a higher standard of living, a true
    democracy for all Nicaraguans without exception.

    þ Providing to each guerrilla clear understanding about the
    struggle for national sovereignty against Soviet-Cuban
    imperialism. Discussion guides will lead the guerrillas so that
    they will see the injustices of the Sandinista system.

    þ Showing each guerrilla the need for good behavior to win the
    support of the population. Discussion guides should convince the
    guerrillas that the attitude and opinion of the population play a
    decisive role, because victory is impossible without popular

    þ Self-criticism will be in constructive terms that will contribute
    to the mission of the movement, and which will provide the
    guerrillas with the conviction that they have a constant and
    positive individual responsibility in the mission of the group.
    The method of instruction will be:

    a) division of the guerrilla force into squads for group
    discussions, including command and support elements,
    whenever the tactical situation permits it. The makeup of
    the small units should be maintained when these groups are

    b) Assignment of a political cadre in the guerrilla force to
    each group to guide the discussion. The squad leader should
    help the cadre to foster study and the expression of
    thoughts. If there are not enough political cadres for each
    squad or post, leaders should guide the discussions, and the
    available cadres visit alternate groups.

    c) It is appropriate for the cadre (or the leader) to guide
    the discussion of a group to cover a number of points and to
    reach a correct conclusion. The guerrillas should feel that
    it was their free and own decision. THe cadre should serve
    as a private teacher. The cadre or leader will not act as a
    lecturer, but will help the members of the group to study
    and express their own opinions.

    d) The political cadre will at the end of every discussion
    make a summary of the principal points, leading them to the
    correct conclusions. Any serious difference with the
    objectives of the movement should be noted by the cadre and
    reported to the comandante of the force. If necessary, a
    combined group meeting will be held and the team of
    political cadres will explain and rectify the

    e) Democratic conduct by the political cadres: living,
    eating and working with the guerrillas, and if possible,
    fighting at their side, sharing their living conditions. All
    of this will foster understanding and the spirit of
    cooperation that will help in the discussion and exchange of

    f) Carry out group discussions in towns, and areas of
    operations whenever possible with the civilian population,
    and not limit them to camps or bases. This is done to
    emphasize the revolutionary nature of the struggle and to
    demonstrate that the guerrillas identified with the
    objectives of the people move about within the population.
    The guerrilla projects himself toward the people, as the
    political cadre does toward the guerrilla, and they should
    live, eat and work together to realize a unity of
    revolutionary thought.

    The principles for guerrilla and political-cadre group discussions

    þ Organize discussion groups at the post or squad level. A cadre
    cannot be sure of the comprehension and acceptance of the
    concepts and conclusions by guerrillas in large groups. In a
    group of the size of a squad of 10 men, the judgement and control
    of the situation is greater. In this way, all students will
    participate in an exchange among them; the political leader, the
    group leader, and also the political cadre. Special attention
    will be given to the individual ability to discuss the objectives
    of the insurrectional struggle. Whenever a guerrilla expresses
    his opinion, he will be interested in listening to the opinions
    of others, leading as a result to the unity of thought.

    þ Combine the different points of view and reach an opinion or
    common conclusion. This is the most difficult task of a political
    guerrilla cadre. After the group discussions of the democratic
    objectives of the movement, the chief of the team of political
    cadres of the guerrilla force should combine the conclusions of
    individual groups in a general summary. At a meeting with all the
    discussion groups, the cadre shall provide the principal points,
    and the guerrillas will have the opportunity to clarify or modify
    their points of view. To carry this out, the conclusions will be
    summarized in the form of slogans, wherever possible.

    þ Face with honesty the national and local problems of our
    struggle. THe political cadres should always be prepared to
    discuss solutions to the problems observed by the guerrillas.
    During the discussions, the guerrillas should be guided by the
    following three principles:

    þ Freedom of thought.

    þ Freedom of expression.

    þ Concentration of thoughts on the objectives of the democratic

  4. #4
    Je otišao sa foruma...osim ako jedna osoba to ne promeni!
    Tekstova u blogu
    Reputaciona moć

    Podrazumevano Re: Sta bi bilo... sta mislite da li je ovo izvodljivo!!!

    Samo cepaj copy/paste

  5. #5
    Aktivan član kalama (avatar)
    Reputaciona moć

    Podrazumevano Re: Sta bi bilo... sta mislite da li je ovo izvodljivo!!!

    u gore navedenom tekstu je nas poznati prijatelj CIA dala kompletnu postavku sta je nekome potrebno da bi poveo jedan,Ustanak-Drzav. puc ili jednostavno gerilsku borbu za svoje interese.

  6. #6
    Aktivan član kalama (avatar)
    Reputaciona moć

    Podrazumevano Re: Sta bi bilo... sta mislite da li je ovo izvodljivo!!!

    pa sad kad bih trebao nekome da prevedem i jos da mu prepricam da bih se onda jos sa doticnim bla bla bla... mislim da je puno plitko,zato je ovako puno bolje a oni koji znaju i razumeju videce o cemu je napisano pa neka prekopiraju i neka UCE,tj imace UPUTSTVO za RAD.Zar nemislis tako?!

  7. #7
    Aktivan član kalama (avatar)
    Reputaciona moć

    Podrazumevano Re: Sta bi bilo... sta mislite da li je ovo izvodljivo!!!

    The result desired is a guerrilla who in a persuasive manner can
    justify all of his acts whenever he is in contact with any member of the
    town/people, and especially with himself and with his guerrilla companions
    by facing the vicissitudes of guerrilla warfare.

    This means that every guerrilla will come to have effective face-to-
    face persuasion as a combatant-propagandist in his contact with the people,
    to the point of giving 5-10 logical reasons why, e.g. a peasant should give
    him a piece of cloth, or a needle and thread to mend his clothes. When
    behaves in this manner, no type of propaganda of the enemy will be able to
    make a "terrorist" of him in the eyes of the people.

    In addition, hunger, cold, fatigue and insecurity in the existence of
    the guerrilla acquire meaning in the cause of the struggle due to the
    constant psychological orientation.

    4. Camp Procedures

    Encamping the guerrilla units gives greater motivation, in addition to
    reducing distractions, and increases the spirit of cooperation of small
    units, relating the physical environment to the psychological one. The
    squad chief shall establish the regular camping procedure. Once thy have
    divested themselves of their packs, the chief will choose the appropriate
    ground for camping. He should select land that predominates over the zone
    with two or three escape routes. He will choose among his men and give them
    responsibilities such as:

    þ Clean the camp area.

    þ Provide adequate drainage in case of rain. Also build some
    trenches or holes for marksmen in case of emergency. In addition,
    he will build a stove, which will be done by making some small
    trenches and placing three rocks in place; in case the stove is
    built on a pedestal, it will be filled with clay and rocks.

    þ Build a windbreaking wall, which will be covered on the sides and
    on the top with branches and leaves of the same vegetation of the
    zones. This will serve for camouflaging and protecting it from
    aerial visibility or from enemy patrols around.

    þ Construct a latrine and a hole where waste and garbage will be
    buried, which should be covered over at the time of abandoning
    the camp.

    þ Once the camp has been set up, it is recommended that a watchman
    be positioned in the places of access at a prudent distance,
    where the shout of alarm can be heard. In the same moment the
    password will be established, which should be changed every 24
    hours. The commander should establish ahead of time an alternate
    meeting point, in case of having to abandon the camp in a hurried
    manner, and they will be able to meet in the other already
    established point, and they should warn the patrol that if at a
    particular time they cannot meet at the established point, the
    should have a third meeting point.

    These procedures contribute to the motivation of the guerrilla and
    improve the spirit of cooperation in the unit. The danger, sense of
    insecurity, anxiety and daily concern in the life of a guerrilla require
    tangible evidence of belonging in an order for him to keep up his spirit
    and morale.

    In addition to the good physical conditions in which the guerrilla
    should find himself, good psychological conditions are necessary, for which
    group discussions and becoming a self=critic are recommended, which will
    greatly benefit the spirit and morale of the same.

    Having broken camp with the effort and cooperation of everyone
    strengthens the spirit of the group. The guerrilla will be inclined then
    towards the unity of thought in democratic objectives.

    5. Interaction with the People

    In order to ensure popular support, essential for the good development
    of guerrilla warfare, the leaders should induce a positive interaction
    between the civilians and the guerrillas, through the principle of "live,
    eat , and work with the people," and maintain control of their activities.
    In group discussions, the leaders and political cadres should give emphasis
    to positively identifying themselves with the people.

    It is not recommendable to speak of military tactical plans in
    discussions with civilians. The Communist foe should be pointed out as the
    number one enemy of the people, and as a secondary threat against our
    guerrilla forces.

    Whenever there is a chance, groups of members should be chosen who
    have a high political awareness and high disciplinary conduct in the work
    to be carried out, in order to be sent to the populous areas in order to
    direct the armed propaganda, where they should persuade the people through
    dialogue in face-to-face confrontations, where these principles should be

    þ Respect for human rights and others' property.

    þ Helping the people in community work.

    þ Protecting the people from Communist aggressions.

    þ Teaching the people environmental hygiene, to read, etc., in
    order to win their trust, which will lead to a better democratic
    ideological preparation.

    This attitude will foster the sympathy of the peasants for our
    movement, and they will immediately become one of us, through logistical
    support, coverage and intelligence information on the enemy or
    participation in combat. The guerrillas should be persuasive through the
    word and not dictatorial with weapons. If they behave in this way, the
    people will feel respected, will be more inclined to accept our message and
    will consolidate into popular support.

    In any place in which tactical guerrilla operations are carried out in
    populous areas, the squad should undertake psychological actions parallel
    to these, and should proceed, accompany and consolidate the common
    objective and explain to all the people about our struggle, explaining that
    our presence is to give peace, liberty and democracy to all Nicaraguans
    without exception, and explaining that out struggle is not against the
    nationals but rather against Russian imperialism. This will serve to ensure
    greater Psychological achievements which will increase the operations of
    the future.

    6. Conclusions

    The nature of the environment in guerrilla warfare does not permit
    sophisticated facilities for psychological operations, and the face-to-face
    persuasion of the guerrilla combatant-propagandists with the people is an
    effective and available tool which we should use as much as possible during
    the process of the struggle.


    1. Generalities

    Frequently a misunderstanding exists on "armed propaganda," that this
    tactic is a compulsion of the people with arms. In reality, it does not
    include compulsion, but the guerrilla should know well the principles and
    methods of this tactic. The objective of this section is to give the
    guerrilla student an understanding of the armed propaganda that should be
    used, and that will be able to be applied in guerrilla warfare.

    2. Close Identification with the People

    Armed propaganda includes all acts carried out by an armed force,
    whose results improve the attitude of the people toward this force, and it
    does not include forced indoctrination. This is carried out by a close
    identification with the people on any occasion. For example:

    þ Putting aside weapons and working side by side with the peasants
    in the countryside: building, fishing, repairing roofs,
    transporting water, etc.

    þ When working with the people, the guerrillas can use slogans such
    as "many hands doing small things, but doing them together."

    þ Participating in the tasks of the people, they can establish a
    strong tie between them and the guerrillas and at the same time a
    popular support for our movement is generated.

    During the patrols and other operations around or in the midst of
    villages, each guerrilla should be respectful and courteous with the
    people. In addition he should move with care and always be well prepared to
    fight, if necessary. But he should not always see all the people as
    enemies, with suspicions or hostility. Even in war, it is possible to
    smile, laugh or greet people. Truly, the cause of our revolutionary base,
    the reason why we are struggling, is our people. We must be respectful to
    them on all occasions that present themselves.

    In places and situations wherever possible, e.g. when they are resting
    during the march, the guerrillas can explain the operation of weapons to
    the youths and young men. They can show them an unloaded rifle so that they
    will learn to load it and unload it; their use, and aiming at imaginary
    targets they are potential recruits for our forces.

    The guerrillas should always be prepared with simple slogans in order
    to explain to the people, whether in an intentional form or by chance, the
    reason for the weapons.

    "The weapons will be for winning freedom; the are for you."

    "With weapons we can impose demands such as hospitals, schools, better
    roads, and social services for the people, for you."

    "Our weapons are, in truth, the weapons of the people, yours."

    "With weapons we can change the Sandino-Communist regime and return to
    the people a true democracy so that we will all have economic

    All of this should be designed to create an identification of the
    people with the weapons and the guerrillas who carry them. Finally, we
    should make the people feel that we are thinking of them and that the
    weapons are the people's, in order to help them and protect them from a
    Communist, totalitarian, imperialist regime, indifferent to the needs of
    the population.

  8. #8
    Aktivan član XXAleksaXX (avatar)
    bivši Tadićev Srbistan
    Reputaciona moć

    Podrazumevano Re: Sta bi bilo... sta mislite da li je ovo izvodljivo!!!

    I kad me ima nisam tu

    Mrzim pašta šutu ...

  9. #9
    Aktivan član kalama (avatar)
    Reputaciona moć

    Podrazumevano Re: Sta bi bilo... sta mislite da li je ovo izvodljivo!!!

    3. Implicit and Explicit Terror

    A guerrilla armed force always involves implicit terror because the
    population, without saying it aloud, feels terror that the weapons may be
    used against them. However, if the terror does not become explicit,
    positive results can be expected.

    In a revolution, the individual lives under a constant threat of
    physical damage. If the government police cannot put an end to the
    guerrilla activities, the population will lose confidence in the
    government, which has the inherent mission of guaranteeing the safety of
    citizens. However, the guerrillas should be careful not to become an
    explicit terror, because this would result in a loss of popular support.

    In the words of a leader of the Huk guerrilla movement of the
    Philippine Islands: "The population is always impressed by weapons, not by
    the terror that they cause, but rather by a sensation of strength/force. We
    must appear before the people, giving them the message of the struggle."
    This is, then, in a few words, the essence of armed propaganda.

    An armed guerrilla force can occupy an entire town or small city that
    is neutral or relatively passive in the conflict. In order to conduct the
    armed propaganda in an effective manner, the following should be carried
    out simultaneously:

    þ Destroy the military or police installations and remove the survivors to
    a "public place."

    þ Cut all the outside lines of communications: cables, radio, messengers.

    þ Set up ambushes in order to delay the reinforcements in all the possible
    entry routes.

    þ Kidnap all officials or agents of the Sandinista government and replace
    them in "public Places" with military or civilian persons of trust to our
    movement; in addition, carry out the following:

    þ Establish a public tribunal that depends on the guerrillas, and cover the
    town or city in order to gather the population for this event.

    þ Shame, ridicule and humiliate the "personal symbols" of the government of
    repression in the presence of the people and foster popular participation
    through guerrillas within the multitude, shouting slogans and jeers.

    þ Reduce the influence of individuals in tune with the regime, pointing out
    their weaknesses and taking them out of the town, without damaging them

    þ Mix the guerrillas within the population and show very good conduct by
    all members of the column, practicing the following:

    Any article taken will be paid for with cash.

    The hospitality offered by the people will be accepted and this
    opportunity will be exploited in order to carry out face-to-face
    persuasion about the struggle.

    Courtesy visits should be made to the prominent persons and those with
    prestige in the place, such as doctors, priests, teachers, etc.

    The guerrillas should instruct the population that with the end of the
    operative, and when the Sandinista repressive forces interrogate them,
    they may reveal EVERYTHING about the military operation carried out.
    For example, the type of weapons they use, ho many men arrived, from
    what direction they came and in what direction they left, in short,

    In addition, indicate to the population that at meetings or in private
    discussion they can give the names of the Sandinista informants, who
    will be removed together with the other officials of the government of

    When a meeting is held, conclude it with a speech by one of the
    leaders of guerrilla political cadres (the most dynamic), which includes
    explicit references to:

    The fact that the "enemies of the people" -- the officials or
    Sandinista agents -- must not be mistreated in spite of their criminal
    acts, although the guerrilla force may have suffered casualties, and that
    this is done due to the generosity of the Christian guerrillas.

    Give a declaration of gratitude for the "hospitality" of the
    population, as well as let them know that the risks that they will run when
    the Sandinistas return are greatly appreciated.

    The fact that the Sandinista regime, although it exploits the people
    with taxes, control of money, grains and all aspects of public life through
    associations, which they are forced to become part of, will not be able to
    resist the attacks of our guerrilla forces.

    Make the promise to the people that you will return to ensure that the
    "leeches" of the Sandinista regime of repression will not be able to hinder
    our guerrillas from integrating with the population.

    A statement repeated to the population to the effect that they can
    reveal everything about this visit of our commandos, because we are not
    afraid of anything or anyone, neither the Soviets nor the Cubans. Emphasize
    that we are Nicaraguans, that we are fighting for the freedom of Nicaragua
    and to establish a very Nicaraguan government.

    4. Guerrilla Weapons Are The Strength of the People over an Illegal

    The armed propaganda in populated areas does not give the impression
    that weapons are the power of the guerrillas over the people, but rather
    that the weapons are the strength of the people against a regime of
    repression. Whenever it is necessary to use armed force in an occupation or
    visit to a town or village, guerrillas should emphasize making sure that

    þ Explain to the population that in the first place this is being done to
    protect them, the people, and not themselves.

    þ Admit frankly and publicly that this is an "act of the democratic
    guerrilla movement," with appropriate explanations.

    þ That this action, although it is not desirable, is necessary because the
    final objective of the insurrection is a free and democratic society, where
    acts of force are not necessary.

    þ The force of weapons is a necessity caused by the oppressive system, and
    will cease to exist when the "forces of justice" of our movement assume

    If, for example, it should be necessary for one of the advanced posts
    to have to fire on a citizen who was trying to leave the town or city in
    which the guerrillas are carrying out armed propaganda or political
    proselytism, the following is recommended:

    þ Explain that if that citizen had managed to escape, he would have alerted
    the enemy that is near the town or city, and they could carry out acts of
    reprisal such as rapes, pillage, destruction, captures, etc., it this way
    terrorizing the inhabitants of the place for having given attention and
    hospitalities to the guerrillas of the town.

    þ If a guerrilla fires at an individual, make the town see that he was an
    enemy of the people, and that they shot him because the guerrilla
    recognized as their first duty the protection of citizens.

    þ The command tried to detain the informant without firing because he, like
    all Christian guerrillas, espouses nonviolence. Firing at the Sandinista
    informant, although it is against his own will, was necessary to prevent
    the repression of the Sandinista government against innocent people.

    þ Make the population see that it was the repressive system of the regime
    that was the cause of this situation, what really killed the informer, and
    that the weapon fired was one recovered in combat against the Sandinista

    þ Make the population see that if the Sandinista regime had ended the
    repression, the corruption backed by foreign powers, etc., the freedom
    commandos would not have had to brandish arms against brother Nicaraguans,
    which goes against our Christian sentiments. If the informant hadn't tried
    to escape he would be enjoying life together with the rest of the
    population, because not have tried to inform the enemy. This death would
    have been avoided if justice and freedom existed in Nicaragua, which is
    exactly the objective of the democratic guerrilla.

    5. Selective Use of Violence for Propagandistic Effects

    It is possible to neutralize carefully selected and planned targets,
    such as court judges, mesta judges, police and State Security officials,
    CDS chiefs, etc. For psychological purposes it is necessary to gather
    together the population affected, so that they will be present, take part
    in the act, and formulate accusations against the oppressor.

    The target or person should be chosen on the basis of:

    þ The spontaneous hostility that the majority of the population feels
    toward the target.

    þ Use rejection or potential hatred by the majority of the population
    affected toward the target, stirring up the population and making them see
    all the negative and hostile actions of the individual against the people.

    þ If the majority of the people give their support or backing to the target
    or subject, do not try to change these sentiments through provocation.

    þ Relative difficulty of controlling the person who will replace the

    The person who will replace the target should be chosen carefully,
    based on:

    þ Degree of violence necessary to carry out the change.

    þ Degree of violence acceptable to the population affected.

    þ Degree of predictable reprisal by the enemy on the population affected or
    other individuals in the area of the target.

    The mission to replace the individual should be followed by:

    þ Extensive explanation within the population affected of the reason why it
    was necessary for the good of the people.

    þ Explain that Sandinista retaliation is unjust, indiscriminate, and above
    all, a justification for the execution of this mission.

    þ Carefully test the reaction of the people toward the mission, as well as
    control this reaction, making sure that the populations reaction is
    beneficial towards the Freedom Commandos.

  10. #10
    Aktivan član kalama (avatar)
    Reputaciona moć

    Podrazumevano Re: Sta bi bilo... sta mislite da li je ovo izvodljivo!!!

    6. Conclusions

    Armed propaganda includes all acts executed and the impact achieved by
    an armed force, which as a result produces positive attitudes in the
    population toward this force, and it does not include forced
    indoctrination. However, armed propaganda is the most effective available
    instrument of a guerrilla force.


    1. Generalities

    In contact with the very reality of their roots, in a psychological
    operation campaign in guerrilla warfare, the comandantes will be able to
    obtain maximum psychological results from an Armed Propaganda program. This
    section is to inform the guerrilla student as to what Armed Propaganda
    Teams are in the environment of guerrilla warfare.

    2. Combination: Political Awareness and Armed Propaganda

    The Armed Propaganda Teams combine political awareness-building with
    armed propaganda, which will be carried out by carefully selected
    guerrillas (preferably with experience in combat), for personal persuasion
    within the population.

    The selection of the staff is more important than the training,
    because we cannot train guerrilla cadres just to show the sensations of
    ardor and fervor, which are essential for person-to-person persuasion. More
    important is the training of persons who are intellectually agile and

    An Armed Propaganda Team includes from 6 to 10 members; this number or
    a smaller number is ideal, since there is more camaraderie, solidarity and
    group spirit. The themes to deal with are assimilated more rapidly and the
    members react more rapidly to unforeseen situations.

    In addition to the combination as armed propagandist-combatant each
    member of the team should be well prepared to carry out permanent person-
    to-person communication, face-to-face.

    The leader of the group should be the commando who is the most highly
    motivated politically and the most effective in face-to-face persuasion.
    The position, hierarchy or range will not be decisive for carrying out that
    function, but rather who is best qualified for communication with the

    The source of basic recruitment for guerrilla cadres will be the same
    social groups of Nicaraguans to whom the psychological campaign is
    directed, such as peasants, students, professionals, housewives, etc. The
    campesinos (peasants) should be made to see that they do not have lands;
    the workers that the State is putting an end to factories and industries;
    the doctors, that they are being replaced by Cuban paramedics, and that as
    doctors they cannot practice their profession due to lack of medicines. A
    requirement for recruiting them will be their ability to express themselves
    in public.

    The selection of the personnel is more important than the training.
    The political awareness-building and the individual capabilities of
    persuasion will be shown in the group discussions for motivation of the
    guerrilla as a propagandist-combatant chosen as cadres to organize them in
    teams, that is, those who have the greatest capacity for this work.

    The training of guerrillas for Armed Propaganda Teams emphasizes the
    method and not the content. A two-week training period is sufficient if the
    recruitment is done in the form indicated. If a mistaken process of
    recruitment has been followed, however good the training provided, the
    individual chosen will not yield a very good result.

    The training should be intensive for 14 days, through team
    discussions, alternating the person who leads the discussion among the
    members of the group.

    The subjects to be dealt with will be the same, each day a different
    theme being presented, for a varied practice.

    The themes should refer to the conditions of the place and the meaning
    that they have for the inhabitants of the locality, such as talking of
    crops, fertilizers, seeds, irrigation of crops, etc. They can also include
    the following topics:

    þ Sawed wood, carpenters' tools for houses or other buildings.

    þ Boats, roads, horses, oxen for transportation, fishing,

    þ Problems that they may have in the place with residents, offices
    of the regime, imposed visitors, etc.

    þ Force labor, service in the militia.

    þ Forced membership in Sandinista groups, such as women's clubs,
    youth associations, workers' groups, etc.

    þ Availability and prices of consumer articles and of basic needs
    in the grocery stores and shops of the place.

    þ Characteristics of education in the public schools.

    þ Anxiety of the people over the presence of Cuban teachers in the
    schools and the intrusion of politics, i.e. using them for
    political ends and not educational ones as should be.

    þ Indignation over the lack of freedom of worship, and persecution,
    of which priests are victims; and over the participation of
    priests such as Escoto and Cardenal in the Sandinista government,
    against the explicit orders of his Holiness, the Pope.

    NOTE: Members of the team can develop other themes.

  11. #11
    Zainteresovan član
    2010 godina promene - kad na vrbi rodi grožđe!
    Reputaciona moć

    Podrazumevano Re: Sta bi bilo... sta mislite da li je ovo izvodljivo!!!

    kalama da ti pomogne cika pera


  12. #12
    Aktivan član kalama (avatar)
    Reputaciona moć

    Podrazumevano Re: Sta bi bilo... sta mislite da li je ovo izvodljivo!!!

    The target groups for the Armed Propaganda Teams are not the persons
    with sophisticated political knowledge, but rather those whose opinion are
    formed from what they see and hear. The cadres should use persuasion to
    carry out their mission. Some of the persuasive methods that they can use
    are the following:

    Interior Group/Exterior Group. It is a principle of psychology that we
    humans have the tendency to form personal associations from "we" and "the
    others," or "we" and "they", "friends" and "enemies," "fellow countrymen"
    and "foreigners," "mestizos" and "gringos."

    The Armed Propaganda Team can use this principle in its activities, so
    that it is obvious that the "exterior" groups ("false" groups) are those of
    the Sandinista regime, and that the "interior" groups ("true" groups) that
    fight for the people are the Freedom Commandos.

    We should inculcate this in the people in a subtle manner so that
    these feelings seem to be born of themselves, spontaneously.

    "Against" is much easier that "for." It is a principle of political
    science that it is easier to persuade the people to vote against something
    or someone than to persuade them to vote in favor of something or someone.
    Although currently the regime has not given the Nicaraguan people the
    opportunity to vote, it is known that the people will vote in opposition,
    so that the Armed Propaganda Teams can use this principle in favor of our
    insurrectional struggle. They should ensure that this campaign is directed
    specifically against the government or its sympathizers, since the people
    should have specific targets for their frustrations.

    Primary Groups and Secondary Groups. Another principle of sociology is
    that we humans forge or change our opinions from two sources: primarily,
    through our association with our family, comrades, or intimate friends; and
    secondarily, through distant associations such as acquaintances in
    churches, clubs or committees, labor unions or governmental organizations.
    The Armed Propaganda Team cadres should join the first groups in order to
    persuade them to follow the policies of our movement, because it is from
    this type of group that the opinions or changes of opinion come.

    Techniques of Persuasion in Talks or Speeches:

    Be Simple and Concise. You should avoid the use of difficult words or
    expressions and prefer popular words and expressions, i.e. the language of
    the people. In dealing with a person you should make use of concise
    language, avoiding complicated words. It is important to remember that we
    use oratory to make our people understand the reason for our struggle, and
    not to show off our knowledge.

    Use Lively and Realistic Examples. Avoid abstract concepts, such as
    are used in universities in the advanced years, and in place of them, give
    concrete examples such as children playing, horses galloping, birds in
    flight, etc.

    Use Gestures to Communicate. Communication, in addition to being
    verbal, can be through gestures, such as using our hands expressively, back
    movements, facial expressions, focusing of our look and other aspects of
    "body language," projecting the individual personality in the message.

    Use the Appropriate Tone of Voice. If, on addressing the people, you
    talk about happiness, a happy tone should be used. If you talk of something
    sad, the tone of the voice should be one of sadness; on talking of a heroic
    or brave act, the voice should be animated, etc.

    Above All, Be Natural, Imitation of others should be avoided, since
    the people, especially simple people, easily distinguish a fake. The
    individual personality should be projected when addressing the population.

    3. "Eyes and Ears" Within the Population

    The amount of information for intelligence that will be generated by
    the deployment of the Armed Propaganda Teams will allow us to cover a large
    area with out commandos, who will become the eyes and ears of our movement
    within the population:

    The combined reports of an Armed Propaganda Team will provide us with
    exact details on the enemy activities.

    The intelligence information obtained by the Armed Propaganda Teams
    should be reported to the chiefs. However, it is necessary to emphasize
    that the first mission of the Armed Propaganda Teams is to carry out
    psychological operations, not to obtain data for intelligence.

    Any intelligence report will be made through the outside contact of
    the Armed Propaganda Team, in order not to compromise the population.

    The Armed Propaganda cadres are able to do what others in a guerrilla
    campaign cannot do: determine personally the development or deterioration
    of the popular support and the sympathy or hostility that the people feel
    toward our movement.

    The Armed Propaganda Team program, in addition to being very effective
    psychologically, increases the guerrilla capacity in obtaining and using

    In addition, the Armed Propaganda cadre will report to his superior
    the reaction of the people to the radio broadcasts, the insurrectional
    flyers, or any other means of propaganda of ours.

    Expressions or gestures of the eyes, or face, the tone and strength of
    the voice, and the use of the appropriate words greatly affect the face-to-
    face persuasion of the people.

    With the intelligence reports supplied by the Armed Propaganda Teams,
    the comandantes will be able to have exact knowledge of the popular
    support, which they will make use of in their operations.

  13. #13
    Aktivan član Срб-ин (avatar)
    Србија - Војводина
    Reputaciona moć

    Podrazumevano Re: Sta bi bilo... sta mislite da li je ovo izvodljivo!!!

    И над кадијама судија, братија, оклоп мач и мантија, у души нам Bизантија!

  14. #14
    Aktivan član kalama (avatar)
    Reputaciona moć

    Podrazumevano Re: Sta bi bilo... sta mislite da li je ovo izvodljivo!!!

    interesantno da ima takvih koji smetaju,ja nikoga neteram da nesto cita ili daje neki komentar ako nece,nemoj da spamujete temu.ako nemate sta pametno da kazete idite dalje ima drugih tema koje su vam sigurno lakse i prihvatljivije.

  15. #15
    Aktivan član Срб-ин (avatar)
    Србија - Војводина
    Reputaciona moć

    Podrazumevano Re: Sta bi bilo... sta mislite da li je ovo izvodljivo!!!

    Citat Original postavio kalama Pogledaj poruku
    interesantno da ima takvih koji smetaju,ja nikoga neteram da nesto cita ili daje neki komentar ako nece,nemoj da spamujete temu.ako nemate sta pametno da kazete idite dalje ima drugih tema koje su vam sigurno lakse i prihvatljivije.
    Ова тема ће бити актуелна све до појаве првог модератора...
    И над кадијама судија, братија, оклоп мач и мантија, у души нам Bизантија!

  16. #16
    Aktivan član kalama (avatar)
    Reputaciona moć

    Podrazumevano Re: Sta bi bilo... sta mislite da li je ovo izvodljivo!!!

    4. Psychological Tactics, Maximum Flexibility

    Psychological tactics will have the greatest flexibility within a
    general plan, permitting a continuous and immediate adjustment of the
    message, and ensuring that an impact is caused on the indicated target
    group at the moment in which it is the most susceptible.

    Tactically, an Armed Propaganda Equipment program should cover the
    majority and if possible all of the operational area. The communities in
    which this propaganda is carried out should not necessarily form political
    units with an official nature. A complete understanding of their structure
    or organization is not necessary because the cadres will work by applying
    socio-political action and not academic theory.

    The target populations of the Armed Propaganda Teams will be chosen
    for being part of the operational area, and not for their size or amount of

    The objective should be the people and not the territorial area.

    In this respect, each work team will be able to cover some six towns
    approximately, in order to develop popular support for our movement.

    The Team should always move in a covert manner within the towns of
    their area.

    They should vary their route radically, but not their itinerary,. This
    is so that the inhabitants who are cooperating will be dependent on their
    itinerary, i.e., the hour in which they can frequently contact them to give
    them the information.

    The danger of betrayal or an ambush can be neutralized by varying the
    itinerary a little, using different routes, as well as arriving or leaving
    without previous warning.

    Whenever the surprise factor is used, vigilance should be kept in
    order to detect the possible presence of hostile elements.

    No more than three consecutive days should be spent in a town.

    The limit of three days has obvious tactical advantages, but it also
    has a psychological effect on the people, on seeing the team as a source of
    current and up-to-date information. Also, it can overexpose the target
    audience and cause a negative reaction.

    Basic tactical precautions should be taken. This is necessary for
    greater effectiveness, as was indicated in dealing with the subject of
    "Armed Propaganda," and when it is carried out discreetly, it increases the
    respect of the people for the team and increases their credibility.

    The basic procedures are: covert elements that carry out vigilance
    before and after the departure and in intervals. There should be two at
    least, and they should meet at a predetermined point upon a signal, or in
    view of any hostile action.

    The team's goal is to motivate the entire population of a place, but
    to constantly remain aware that defined target groups exist within this
    general configuration of the public.

    Although meetings may be held in the population, the cadres should
    recognize and keep in contact with the target groups, mixing with them
    before, during and after the meeting. The method for holding this type of
    meeting was included in the topic "Armed Propaganda," and will be covered
    in greater detail under the title "Control of Mass Meetings and

    The basic focus of the Armed Propaganda cadres should be on the
    residents of the town,where their knowledge as formers of opinion can be

    In the first visits of identification with the inhabitants, the
    guerrilla cadres will be courteous and humble. They can work in the fields
    or in any other form in which their abilities can contribute to the
    improvement of the living style of the inhabitants of the place, winning
    their trust and talking with them; helping to repair the fences of their
    cattle; the cleaning of the same, collaborating in the vaccination of their
    animals; teaching them to read, i.e., closely together in all the tasks of
    the peasant or the community.

    In his free time, our guerrilla should mix in with the community
    groups and participate with them in pastoral activities, parties,
    birthdays, and even in wakes or burials of the members of said community;
    he will try to converse with both adults and adolescents. |He will try to
    penetrate to the heart of the family, in order to win the acceptance and
    trust of all of the residents of that sector.

    The Armed Propaganda Team cadres will give ideological training,
    mixing these instructions with folkloric songs, and at the same time he
    will tell stories that have some attraction, making an effort to make them
    refer to heroic acts of our ancestors. He will also try to tell stories of
    heroism of our combatants in the present struggle so that listeners try to
    imitate them. It is important to let them know that there are other
    countries in the world where freedom and democracy cause those governing to
    be concerned over the well-being of their people, so that the children have
    medical care and free education; where also they are concerned that
    everyone have work and food, and all freedoms such as those of religion,
    association and expression; where the greatest objective of the government
    is to keep its people happy.

    The cadres should not make mention of their political ideology during
    the first phase of identification with the people, and they should orient
    their talks to things that are pleasing to the peasants or the listeners,
    trying to be as simple as possible in order to be understood.

    The tactical objectives for identification with the people are the

    To establish tight relations through identification with the people,
    through their very customs.

    To determine the basic needs and desires of the different target

    To discover the weaknesses of the governmental control.

    Little by little, to sow the seed of democratic revolution, in order
    to change the vices of the regime towards a new order of justice and
    collective well-being.

    In the motivation of the target groups, by the Armed Propaganda Teams,
    the cadre should apply themes of "true~ groups and themes of "false"
    groups. The true group will correspond to the target group and the false
    one to the Sandinista regime.

    For the economic interest groups, such as small businessmen and
    farmers, it should be emphasized that their potential progress is "limited"
    by the Sandinista government, that resources are scarcer and scarcer, the
    earnings/profits minimal, taxes high, etc. This can be applied to
    entrepreneurs of transportation and others.

    For the elements ambitious for power and social positions, it will be
    emphasized that they will never be able to belong to the governmental
    social class, since they are hermetic in their circle of command. Example,
    the nine Sandinista leaders do not allow other persons to participate in
    the government, and they hinder the development of the economic and social
    potential of those like him, who have desires of overcoming this, which is
    unjust and arbitrary.

    Social and intellectual criticisms. They should be directed at the
    professionals, professors, teachers, priests, missionaries, students and
    others. Make them see that their writings, commentaries or conversations
    are censored, which does not make it possible to correct these problems.

    Once the needs and frustrations of the target groups have been
    determined, the hostility of the people to the "false" groups will become
    more direct, against the current regime and its system of repression. The
    people will be made to see that once this system or structure has been
    eliminated, the cause of their frustration s would be eliminated and they
    would be able to fulfill their desires. It should be shown to the
    population that supporting the insurrection is really supporting their own
    desires, since the democratic movement is aimed at the elimination of these
    specific problems.

    As a general rule, the Armed Propaganda teams should avoid
    participating in combat. However, if this is not possible, they should
    react as a guerrilla unit with tactics of "hit and run," causing the enemy
    the greatest amount of casualties with aggressive assault fire, recovering
    enemy weapons and withdrawing rapidly.

    One exception to the rule to avoid combat will be when in the town
    they are challenged by hostile actions, whether by an individual or whether
    by a number of men of an enemy team.

    The hostility of one or two men can be overcome by eliminating the
    enemy in a rapid and effective manner. This is the most common danger.

    When the enemy is equal in the number of its forces, there should be
    an immediate retreat, and then the enemy should be ambushed or eliminated
    by means of sharp-shooters.

    In any of the cases, the Armed Propaganda Team cadres should not turn
    the town into a battleground. Generally, our guerrilla will be better
    armed, so that they will obtain greater respect from the population if they
    carry out appropriate maneuvers instead of endangering their lives, or even
    destroying their houses in an encounter with the enemy within the town.

  17. #17
    Aktivan član kalama (avatar)
    Reputaciona moć

    Podrazumevano Re: Sta bi bilo... sta mislite da li je ovo izvodljivo!!!

    5. A Comprehensive Team Program - Mobile Infrastructure

    The psychological operations through the Armed Propaganda Teams
    include the infiltration of key guerrilla communicators (i.e., Armed
    Propaganda Team cadres) into the population of the country, instead of
    sending messages to them through outside sources, thus creating our "mobile

    A "mobile infrastructure" is a cadre of our Armed Propaganda Team
    moving about, i.e., keeping in touch with six or more populations, from
    which his source of information will come; and at the same time it will
    serve so that at the appropriate time they will become integrated in the
    complete guerrilla movement.

    In this way, an Armed Propaganda Team program in the operational area
    builds for our comandantes in the countryside constant source of data
    gathering (infrastructure) in all the area. It is also a means for
    developing or increasing popular support, for recruiting new members and
    for obtaining provisions.

    In addition, an Armed Propaganda Team program allows the expansion of
    the guerrilla movement, since they can penetrate areas that are not under
    the control of the combat units. In this way, through an exact evaluation
    of the combat units they will be able to plan their operations more
    precisely, since they will have certain knowledge of the existing

    The comandantes will remember that this type of operation is similar
    to the Fifth Column, which was used in the first part of the Second World
    War, and which through infiltration and subversion tactics allowed the
    Germans to penetrate the target countries before the invasions. They
    managed to enter Poland, Belgium, Holland and France in a month, and Norway
    in a week. The effectiveness of this tactic has been clearly demonstrated
    in several wars and can be used effectively by the Freedom Commandos.

    The activities of the Armed Propaganda Teams run some risks, but no
    more than any other guerrilla activity. However, the Armed Propaganda Teams
    are essential for the success of the struggle.

    6. Conclusions

    In the same way that the explorers are the "eyes and "ears" of a
    patrol, or of a column on the march, the Armed Propaganda Teams are also
    the source of information, the "antennas" of our movement, because they
    find and exploit the sociopolitical weaknesses in the target society,
    making possible a successful operation.

  18. #18
    Aktivan član kalama (avatar)
    Reputaciona moć

    Podrazumevano Re: Sta bi bilo... sta mislite da li je ovo izvodljivo!!!


    1. Generalities

    The development and control of front organizations (or "facade"
    organizations) is an essential process in the guerrilla effort to carry out
    the insurrection. That is, in truth, an aspect of urban guerrilla warfare,
    but it should advance parallel to the campaign in the rural area. This
    section has as its objective to give the guerrilla student an understanding
    of the development and control of front organizations in guerrilla warfare.

    2. Initial Recruitment

    The initial recruitment to the movement, if it is involuntary, will be
    carried out through several "private" consultations with a cadre (without
    his knowing that he is talking to a member of ours). Then, the recruit will
    be informed that he or she is already inside the movement, and he will be
    exposed to the police of the regime if he or she does not cooperate.

    When the guerrillas carry out missions of armed propaganda and a
    program of regular visits to the towns by the Armed Propaganda Teams, these
    contacts will provide the commandos with the names and places of persons
    who can be recruited. The recruitment, which will be voluntary, is done
    through visits by guerrilla leaders or political cadres.

    After a chain of voluntary recruitments has been developed, and the
    trustworthiness of the recruits has been established by their carrying out
    small missions, they will be instructed about increasing/widening the chain
    by recruiting in specific target groups, in accordance with the following

    From among their acquaintances or through observation of the target
    groups - political parties, workers' unions, youth groups, agrarian
    associations, etc. - finding out the personal habits, preferences and
    biases, as well as the weaknesses of the "recruitable" individuals.

    Make an approach through an acquaintance, and if possible, develop a
    friendship, attracting him through his preferences or weaknesses: it might
    be inviting him for lunch in the restaurant of his choice or having a drink
    in his favorite cantina or an invitation to dinner in the place he prefers.

    Recruitment should follow one of the following guidelines:

    þ If in an informal conversation the target seems susceptible to
    voluntary recruitment based on his beliefs and personal values, etc.,
    the political cadre assigned to carry out the recruitments will be
    notified of this. The original contact will indicate to the cadre
    assigned, in detail, all he knows of the prospective recruit, and the
    style of persuasion to be used, introducing the two.

    þ If the target does not seem to be susceptible to voluntary
    recruitment, meetings can be arranged which seem casual with the
    guerrilla leaders or with the political cadres (unknown by the target
    until that moment). The meetings will be held so that "other persons"
    know that the target is attending them, whether they see him arrive at
    a particular house, seated at the table in a particular bar or even
    seated on a park bench. The target, then, is faced with the fact of
    his participation in the insurrectional struggle and it will be
    indicated to him also that if he fails to cooperate or to carry out
    future orders, he will be subjected to reprisals by the police or
    soldiers of the regime.

    þ The notification of the police, denouncing a target who does not
    want to join the guerrillas, can be carried out easily, when it
    becomes necessary, through a letter with false statements of citizens
    who are not implicated in the movement. Care should be taken that the
    person who recruited him covertly is not discovered.

    þ With the carrying out of clandestine missions for the movement, the
    involvement and handing over of every recruit is done gradually on a
    wider and wider scale, and confidence increases. This should be a
    gradual process, in order to prevent confessions from fearful
    individuals who have been assigned very difficult or dangerous
    missions too early.

    Using this recruitment technique, our guerrillas will be able to
    successfully infiltrate any key target group in the regime, in order to
    improve the internal control of the enemy structure.

    3. Established Citizens, Subjective Internal Control

    Established citizens, such as doctors, lawyers, businessmen,
    landholders, minor state officials, etc., will be recruited to the movement
    and used for subjective internal control of groups and associations to
    which they belong or may belong.

    Once the recruitment/involvement has been brought about, and has
    progressed to the point that allows that specific instructions be given to
    internal cadres to begin to influence their groups, instructions will be
    given to them to carry out the following:

    þ The process is simple and only requires a basic knowledge of the
    Socrates dialectic: that is the knowledge that is inherent to another
    person or the established position of a group, some theme, some word
    or some thought related to the objective of persuasion of the person
    in charge of our recruitment.

    þ The cadre then must emphasize this theme, word or thought in the
    discussions or meetings of the target group, through a casual
    commentary, which improves the focus of other members of the group in
    relation to this. Specific examples are:

    Economic interest groups are motivated by profit and generally feel
    that the system hinders the use of their capability in this effort in some
    way, taxes, import-export tariffs, transportation costs, etc. The cadre in
    charge will increase this feeling of frustration in later conversations.

    Political aspirants, particularly if the are not successful, feel that
    the system discriminates against them unfairly, limiting their
    capabilities, because the Sandinista regime does not allow elections. The
    cadres should focus political discussions towards this frustration.

    Intellectual social critics (such as professors, teachers, priests,
    missionaries, etc.), generally feel that the government ignores their valid
    criticism or censors their comments unjustly, especially in a situation of
    revolution. This can easily be shown by the guerrilla cadre at meetings and
    discussions, to be an injustice of the system.

    For all the target groups, after they have established frustrations,
    the hostility towards the obstacles to their aspirations will gradually
    become transferred to the current regime and its system of repression.

    The guerrilla cadre moving among the target groups should always
    maintain a low profile, so that the development of hostile feelings towards
    the false Sandinista regime seems to come spontaneously from the members of
    the group and not from suggestions of the cadres. This is internal
    subjective control.

    Antigovernmental hostility should be generalized, and not necessarily
    in our favor. If a group develops a feeling in our favor, it can be
    utilized. But the main objective is to precondition the target groups for
    the fusion in mass organizations later in the operation, when other
    activities have been successfully undertaken.

    4. Organizations of Cells for Security

    Internal cadres of our movement should organize into cells of three
    persons, only one of them maintaining outside contact.

    The cell of three persons is the basic element of the movement, with
    frequent meetings to receive orders and pass information to the cell
    leader. These meetings are also very important for mutually reinforcing the
    members of the cell, as well as their morale. They should exercise
    criticism of themselves on the realization or failures in carrying out
    individual subjective control missions.

    The coordination of the three-member cell provides a security net for
    reciprocal communication, each member having contact with only an
    operational cell. The members will not reveal at the cell coordination
    meetings the identity of their contact in an operational cell; they will
    reveal only the nature of the activity in which the cell is involved, e.g.,
    political party work, medical association work, etc.

    There is no hierarchy in cells outside of an element of coordination,
    who is the leader, who will have direct but covert contact with our
    guerrilla comandante in the zone or operational area. The previous diagram
    does not indicate which new operational cell is the limit, but it indicates
    that for every three operational cells, we need a coordination cell.

  19. #19
    Aktivan član kalama (avatar)
    Reputaciona moć

    Podrazumevano Re: Sta bi bilo... sta mislite da li je ovo izvodljivo!!!

    sta vi mislite jesu li na ovaj fazon SIPTARI i svi drugi cinili svoje namere!

  20. #20
    Aktivan član kalama (avatar)
    Reputaciona moć

    Podrazumevano Re: Sta bi bilo... sta mislite da li je ovo izvodljivo!!!

    5. Fusion in a "Cover" Organization

    The fusion of organizations recognized by the Sandinista government,
    such as associations and other groups, through internal subjective control,
    occurs in the final stages of the operation, in a tight connection with
    mass meetings.

    When the guerrilla armed action has expanded sufficiently, armed
    propaganda missions will be carried out on a large scale: propaganda teams
    will have clearly developed open support of the institutions; the enemy
    system of target groups will be well infiltrated and preconditioned. At the
    point at which mass meetings are held, the internal cadres should begin
    discussions for the "fusion" of forces into an organization - this
    organization will be a "cover" source of our movement.

    Any other target group will be aware that other groups are developing
    greater hostility to the government., the police and the traditional legal
    bases of authority. The guerrilla cadres tn that group - for example,
    teachers - will cultivate this awareness-building, making comments such as
    "So-and-so, who is a farmer, said that the members of his cooperative
    believe that the new economic policy is absurd, poorly planned and unfair
    to the farmers."

    When the awareness-building is increased, in the sense that other
    groups feel hostility towards the regime, the group discussions are held
    openly and our movement will be able to receive reports that the majority
    of their operatives are united in common, greater hostility against the
    regime. This will be developed and the order to fuse/join will come about.
    The fusion into a "cover" front is carried out thusly:

    þ Internal cadres of our movement will meet with people such as
    presidents, leaders, and others, at organized meetings chaired by the
    group chief of our movement. Two or three escorts can assist the
    guerrilla cadre if it becomes necessary.

    þ Publish a joint communique on this meeting, announcing the creation
    of the "cover" front, including names and signatures of the
    participants, and names of the organizations that they represent.

    After releasing this communique, mass meetings should be initiated,
    which should have as a goal the destruction of the Sandinista control.

    6. Conclusions

    The development and control of the "cover" organizations in a
    guerrilla war will give our movement the ability to create the "whiplash"
    effect within the population, when the order for fusion is gives. When the
    infiltration and internal subjective control have been developed parallel
    with other guerrilla activities, a democratic guerrilla commander will
    literally be able to shake up the Sandinista structure and replace it.

  21. #21
    Aktivan član kalama (avatar)
    Reputaciona moć

    Podrazumevano Re: Sta bi bilo... sta mislite da li je ovo izvodljivo!!!


    1. Generalities

    In the last stages of a guerrilla war, mass concentrations and
    meetings are a powerful psychological tool for carrying out the mission.
    This section has as its objective giving the guerrilla student training on
    techniques for controlling mass concentrations and meetings in guerrilla

    2. Infiltration of Guerrilla Cadres

    Infiltration of guerrilla cadres (whether a member of our movement or
    outside element) in workers' unions, student groups, peasant organizations,
    etc., preconditioning these groups for behavior within the masses, where
    they will have to carry proselytism for the instructional struggle in a
    clandestine manner.

    þ Our psychological war team should prepare in advance a hostile
    mental attitude among the target groups so that at the decisive moment
    they can turn their furor into violence, demanding their rights that
    have been trampled upon by the regime.

    þ These preconditioning campaigns must be aimed at the political
    parties, professional organizations, students, laborers, the masses of
    the unemployed, the ethnic minorities and any other sector of society
    that is vulnerable or recruitable; this also includes the popular
    masses and sympathizers of our movement.

    þ The basic objective of a preconditioning campaign is to create a
    negative "image" of the common enemy, e.g.:

    Describe the managers of collective government entities as trying
    to treat the staff the way "slave foremen" do.

    The police mistreat the people like the Communist "Gestapo" does.

    The government officials of National Reconstruction are puppets
    of Russian-Cuban imperialism.

    Our psychological war cadres will create compulsive obsessions of
    a temporary nature in places of public concentrations, constantly
    hammering away at the themes pointed out or desired, the same as
    in group gatherings; in informal conversations expressing
    discontent; in addition passing out brochures and flyers, and
    writing editorial articles both on the radio and in newspapers,
    focused on the intention of preparing the mind of the people of
    the decisive moment, which will erupt in general violence.

    In order to facilitate the preconditioning of the masses, we
    should often use phrases to make the people see, such as:

    The taxes that they pay the government do not benefit the people
    at all, but rather are uses as a form of exploitation in order to
    enrich those governing.

    Make it plain to the people that they have become slaves, that
    they are being exploited by privileged military and political

    þ The foreign advisers and their counseling programs are in reality
    "interveners" in our homeland, who direct the exploitation of the
    nation in accordance with the objectives of the Russian and Cuban
    imperialists, in order to turn our people into slaves of the hammer
    and sickle.

    3. Selection of Appropriate Slogans

    The leaders of the guerrilla warfare classify their slogans in
    accordance with the circumstances with the aim of mobilizing the masses in
    a wide scale of activities and at the highest emotional level.

    When the mass uprising is being developed, our covert cadres should
    make partial demands, initially demanding, e.g. "We want food," "We want
    freedom of worship," "We want union freedom" - steps that will lead us
    toward the realization of the goals of our movement, which are: GOD,

    If a lack of organization and command is noted in the enemy authority,
    and the people find themselves in a state of exaltation, advantage can be
    taken of this circumstance so that our agitators will raise the tone of the
    rallying slogans, taking them to the most strident point.

    If the masses are not emotionally exalted, our agitators will continue
    with the "partial" slogans, and the demands will be based on daily needs,
    chaining them to the goals of our movement.

    An example of the need to give simple slogans is that few people think
    in terms of millions of cordobas, but any citizen, however humble he may
    be, understands that a pair of shoes is necessary. The goals of the
    movement are of an ideological nature, but our agitators must realize that
    food - "bread and butter," "the tortilla and red beans" - pull along the
    people, and it should be understood that this is their main mission.

    4. Creation of Nuclei

    This involves the mobilization of a specific number of agitators of
    the guerrilla organization of the place. This group will inevitably attract
    an equal number of curious persons who seek adventures and emotions, as
    well as those unhappy with the system of government. The guerrillas will
    attract sympathizers, discontented citizens as a consequence of the
    repression of the system. Each guerrilla subunit will be assigned specific
    tasks and missions that they should carry out.

    Our cadres will be mobilized in the largest number possible, together
    with persons who have been affected by the Communist dictatorship, whether
    their possessions have been stolen from them, they have been incarcerated,
    or tortured, or suffered from any other type of aggression against them.
    They will be mobilized toward the areas where the hostile and criminal
    elements of the FSLN, CDS and others live, with an effort for them to be
    armed with clubs, iron rods, placards and if possible, small firearms,
    which they will carry hidden.

    If possible, professional criminals will be hired to carry out
    specific selected "jobs."

    Our agitators will visit the places where the unemployed meet, as well
    as the unemployment offices, in order to hire them for unspecified "jobs."
    The recruitment of these wage earners is necessary because a nucleus is
    created under absolute orders.

    The designated cadres will arrange ahead of time the transportation of
    the participants, in order to take them to meeting places in private or
    public vehicles, boats or any other type of transportation.

    Other cadres will be designated to design placards, flags and banners
    with different slogans or key words, whether they be partial, temporary or
    of the most radical type.

    Other cadres will be designated to prepare flyers, posters, signs and
    pamphlets to make the concentration more noticeable. This material will
    contain instructions for the participants and will also serve against the

    Specific tasks will be assigned to others, in order to create a
    "martyr" for the cause, taking the demonstrators to a confrontation with
    the authorities, in order to bring about uprisings or shootings, which will
    cause the death of one or more persons, who would become the martyrs, a
    situation that should be made use of immediately against the regime, in
    order to create greater conflicts.

  22. #22
    Aktivan član kalama (avatar)
    Reputaciona moć

    Podrazumevano Re: Sta bi bilo... sta mislite da li je ovo izvodljivo!!!

    5. Ways to Lead an Uprising at Mass Meetings

    It can be carried out by means of a small group of guerrillas
    infiltrated within the masses, who will have the mission of agitating,
    giving the impression that there are many of them and that they have
    popular backing. Using the tactics of a force of 200-300 agitators, a
    demonstration can be created in which 10,00-20,00 persons take part.

    The agitation of the masses in a demonstration is carried out by means
    of sociopolitical objectives. In this action one or several people of our
    convert movement should take part, highly trained as mass agitators,
    involving innocent persons, in order to bring about an apparent spontaneous
    protest demonstration. They will lead all of the concentration to the end
    of it.

    Outside Commando. This element stays out of all activity, located so
    that they can observe from where they are the development of the planned
    events. As a point of observation, they should look for the tower of a
    church, a high building, a high tree, the highest level of the stadium or
    an auditorium, or any other high place.

    Inside Commando. This element will remain within the multitude. Great
    importance should be given to the protection of the leaders of these
    elements. Some placards or large allusive signs should be used to designate
    the Commando Posts and to provide signals to the subunits. This element
    will avoid placing itself in places where fights or incidents come about
    after the beginning of the demonstration.

    These key agitators of ours will remain within the multitude. The one
    responsible for this mission will assign ahead of time the agitators to
    remain near the placard that he will indicate to them, in order to give
    protection to the placard from any contrary element. In that way the
    commander will know where our agitators are, and will be able to send
    orders to change passwords or slogans, or any other unforeseen thing, and
    even eventually to incite violence if he desires it.

    At this stage, once the key cadres have been dispersed, they should
    place themselves in visible places such as by signs, lampposts, and other
    places which stand out.

    Our key agitators should avoid places of disturbances, once they have
    taken care of the beginning of the same.

    Defense Posts. These elements will act as bodyguards in movement,
    forming a ring of protection for the chief, protecting him from the police
    and the army, or helping him to escape if it should be necessary. They
    should be highly disciplined and will react only upon a verbal order from
    the chief.

    In case the chief participates in a religious concentration, a funeral
    or any other type of activity in which they have to behave in an organized
    fashion, the bodyguards will remain in the ranks very close to the chief or
    to the placard or banner carriers in order to give them full protection.

    The participants in this mission should be guerrilla combatants in
    civilian clothes, or hired recruits who are sympathizers in our struggle
    and who are against the oppressive regime.

    These members must have a high discipline and will use violence only
    on the verbal orders of the one in charge of them.

    Messengers. They should remain near the leaders, transmitting orders
    between the inside and outside commandos. They will use communication
    radios, telephones, bicycles, motorcycles, cars, or move on foot or
    horseback, taking paths or trails to shorten distances. Adolescents (male
    and female) are ideal for this mission.

    Shock Troops. These men should be equipped with weapons (Knives,
    razors, chains, clubs, bludgeons) and should march slightly behind the
    innocent and gullible participants. They should carry their weapons hidden.
    They will enter into action only as "reinforcements" if the guerrilla
    agitators are attacked by the police. They will enter the scene quickly,
    violently and by surprise, in order to distract the authorities, in this
    way making possible the withdrawal or rapid escape of the inside commando.

    Carriers of Banners and Placards. The banners and placards used in
    demonstrations or concentrations will express the protests of the
    population, but when the concentration reaches its highest level of
    euphoria or popular discontent, our infiltrated persons will make use of
    the placards against the regime, which we manage to infiltrate in a hidden
    fashion, an don them slogans or key words will be expressed to the benefit
    of our cause. The one responsible for this mission will assign the
    agitators ahead of time to keep near the placard of any contrary element.
    In that way, the comandante will know where the agitators are, and will be
    able to send orders to change slogans and eventually to incite violence if
    he wishes.

    Agitators of Rallying Cries and Applause. They will be trained with
    specific instructions to use tried rallying cries. They will be able to use
    phrase such as "WE ARE HUNGRY, WE WAND BREAD," and "WE DON'T WANT
    COMMUNISM." There work and their technique for agitating the masses is
    quite similar to those of the leaders of applause and slogans at the high
    school football or baseball games. The objective is to become more adept
    and not just to shout rallying cries.

    6. Conclusions

    In a revolutionary movement of guerrilla warfare, the mass
    concentrations and protest demonstrations are the principle essential for
    the destruction of the enemy structures.


    1. Generalities

    The separate coverage in these sections could leave the student with
    some doubts. Therefore, all sections are summarized here, in order to give
    a clearer picture of this book.

    2. Motivation as Combatant-Propagandist

    Every member of the struggle should know that his political mission is
    as important as, if not more important than, his tactical mission.

    3. Armed Propaganda

    Armed propaganda in small towns, rural villages, and city residential
    districts should give the impression that our weapons are not for
    exercising power over the people, but rather that the weapons are for
    protecting the people; that they are the power of the people against the
    FSLN government of oppression.

    4. Armed Propaganda Teams

    Armed Propaganda Teams will combine political awareness building and
    the ability to conduct propaganda for ends of personal persuasion, which
    will be carried out within the population.

    5. Cover ("Facade") Organizations

    The fusion of several organizations and associations recognized by the
    government, through internal subjective control, occurs in the final stages
    of the operation, in close cooperation with mass meetings.

    6. Control of Mass Demonstrations

    The mixture of elements of the struggle with participants in the
    demonstration will give the appearance of a spontaneous demonstration,
    lacking direction,which will be used by the agitators of the struggle to
    control the behavior of the masses.

    7. Conclusion

    Too often we see guerrilla warfare only from the point of view of
    combat actions. This view is erroneous and extremely dangerous. Combat
    actions are not the key to victory in guerrilla warfare but rather form
    part of one of the six basic efforts. There is no priority in any of the
    efforts, but rather they should progress in a parallel manner. The emphasis
    or exclusion of any of these efforts could bring about serious
    difficulties, and in the worst of cases, even failure. The history of
    revolutionary wars has shown this reality.


    The purpose of this appendix is to complement the guidelines and
    recommendations to the propagandist-guerrillas expressed under the topic of
    "Techniques of Persuasion in Talks and Speeches," to improve the ability to
    organize and express thoughts for those who wish to perfect their
    oratorical abilities. After all, oratory is one of the most valuable
    resources for exercising leadership. Oratory can be used, then, as an
    extraordinary political tool.

    2. The Audience

    Oratory is simultaneous communication par excellence, i.e., the orator
    and his audience share the same time and space. Therefore, every speech
    should be a different experience at "that" moment or particular situation
    which the audience is experiencing and which influences them. So the
    audience must be considered as "a state of mind." Happiness, sadness,
    anger, fear, etc., are states of mind that we must consider to exist in our
    audience, and it is the atmosphere that affects the target public.

    The human being is made up of a mind and soul; he acts in accordance
    with his thoughts and sentiments and responds to stimuli of ideas and
    emotions. In that way there exist only two possible focuses in any plan,
    including speeches: the concrete, based on rational appeals, i.e., to
    thinking; and the idealized, with emotional appeals, i.e., to sentiment.

    For his part the orator, although he must be sensitive to the existing
    mass sentiment, he must at the same time keep his cold judgment to be able
    to lead and control effectively the feelings of an audience. When in the
    oratorical momentum the antithesis between heart and brain comes about,
    judgment should always prevail, characteristic of a leader.

    3. Political Oratory

    Political oratory is one of the various forms of oratory, and it
    usually fulfills one of three objectives: to instruct, persuade, or move;
    and its method is reduced to urging (asking), ordering, questioning and

    Oratory is a quality so tied to political leadership that it can be
    said that the history of political orators is the political history of
    humanity, an affirmation upheld by names such as Cicero, Demosthenes,
    Danton, Mirabeau, Robespierre, Clemenceau, Lenin, Trotsky, Mussolini,
    Hitler, Roosevelt, etc.

  23. #23
    Aktivan član kalama (avatar)
    Reputaciona moć

    Podrazumevano Re: Sta bi bilo... sta mislite da li je ovo izvodljivo!!!

    4. Qualities in a Speech

    In general terms, the most appreciated qualities of a speech, and
    specifically a political speech in the context of the psychological action
    of the armed struggle, are the following:

    þ Be brief and concise
    A length of five minutes [line missing in Spanish text]...that of
    the orator who said: "If you want a two-hour speech, I'll start
    right now; if you want a two-minute one, let me think awhile."

    þ Centered on the theme
    The speech should be structured by a set of organized ideas that
    converge on the theme. A good speech is expressed by concepts and
    not only with words.

    þ Logic
    The ideas presented should be logical and easily acceptable.
    never challenge logic in the mind of the audience, since
    immediately the main thing is lost - credibility. As far as
    possible, it is recommended that all speeches be based on a
    syllogism, which the orator should adjust in his exposition. For
    example: "Those governing get rich and are thieves; the
    Sandinistas have enriched themselves governing; then, the
    Sandinistats are thieves." This could be the point of a speech on
    the administrative corruption of the regime. When an idea or a
    set of guiding ideas do not exist in a speech, confusion and
    dispersion easily arise.

    5. Structure of a Speech

    Absolute improvisation does not exist in oratory. All orators have a
    "mental plan" that allows them to organize their ideas and concepts
    rapidly; with practice it is possible to come to do this in a few seconds,
    almost simultaneously with the expression of the word.

    The elements that make up a speech are given below, in a structure
    that we recommend always putting into practice, to those who wish to more
    and more improve their oratorical abilities:

    þ Introduction or Preamble
    One enters into contact with the public, a personal introduction
    can be made or one of the movement to which we belong, the reason
    for our presence, etc. In these first seconds it is important to
    make an impact, attracting attention and provoking interest among
    the audience. For that purpose, there are resources such as
    beginning with a famous phrase or a previously prepared slogan,
    telling a dramatic or humorous story, etc.

    þ Purpose or Enunciation
    The subject to be dealt with is defined, explained as a whole or
    by parts.

    þ Appraisal or Argumentation
    Arguments are presented, EXACTLY IN THIS ORDER: First, the
    negative arguments, or against the thesis that is going to be
    upheld, and then the positive arguments, or favorable ones to our
    thesis, immediately adding proof or facts that sustain such

    þ Recapitulation or Conclusion
    A short summary is made and the conclusions of the speech are
    spelled out.

    þ Exhortation
    Action by the public is called for, i.e., they are asked in and
    almost energetic manner to do or not to do something.

    6. Some Literary Resources

    Although there exist typically oratorical devices of diction, in
    truth, oratory has taken from other literary genres a large number of
    devices, several of which often, in an unconscious manner, we use in our
    daily expressions and even in our speeches.

    Below we enunciate many of their literary devices in frequent use in
    oratory, recommending to those interested moderate use of them, since an
    orator who over-uses the literary device loses authenticity and sounds

    The devices that are used the most in oratory are those obtained
    through the repetition of words in particular periods of the speech, such

    Anaphora, or repetition of a word at the beginning of each sentence,
    e.g., "Freedom for the poor, freedom for the rich, freedom for all." In the
    reiteration, repetition is of a complete sentence (slogan) insistently
    through the speech, e.g., "With God and patriotism we will overcome
    Communism because...:

    Conversion is the repetition at the end of every phrase, e.g.:
    "Sandinismo tries to be about everyone, dominate everyone, command
    everyone, and as an absolute tyranny, do away with everyone."

    In the emphasis, repetition is used at the beginning and at the end of
    the clause, e.g., "Who brought the Russian-Cuban intervention? The
    Sandinistas. And who is engaged in arms trafficking with the neighboring
    countries? The Sandinistas. And who is proclaiming to be in favor of
    nonintervention? The Sandinistas."

    Reduplication, when the phrase begins with the same word that ends the
    previous one. For example: "We struggle for democracy, democracy and social
    justice." The concatenation is a chain made up of duplications. For
    example: "Communism transmits the deception of the child to the young man,
    of the young man to the adult, and of the adult to the old man."

    In the antithesis or word play, the same words are used with a
    different meaning to give an ingenious effect: e.g., "The greatest wealth
    of every human being is his own freedom, because slaves will always be poor
    but we poor can have the wealth of our freedom."

    Similar cadences, through the use of verbs of the same tense and
    person, or nouns of the same number and case. For example: "Those of us who
    are struggling we will be marching because he who perseveres achieves, and
    he who gives up remains."

    Use of synonyms, repetition of words with a similar meaning. For
    example: "We demand a Nicaragua for all, without exceptions, without

    Among the figures of speech most used in oratory are:

    Comparison or simile, which sets the relationship of similarity
    between two or more beings or things. For example: "Because we love Christ,
    we love his bishops and pastors," and "Free as a bird."

    Antithesis, or the counterposition of words, ideas, or phrases of an
    opposite meaning. For example: "They promised freedom and gave slavery;
    that they would distribute the wealth and they have distributed poverty;
    that they would bring peace, and they have brought about war."

    Among the logic figures are the following:

    Concession, which is a skillful way to concede something to the
    adversary in order to better emphasize the inappropriate aspects, through
    the use of expressions such as: but, however, although, nevertheless, in
    spite of the fact that, etc. For example: "The mayor here has been honest,
    but he is not the one controlling all the money of the nation." It is an
    effective form of rebuttal when the opinion of the audience is not entirely

    Permission, in which one apparently accedes to something, when in
    reality it is rejected. For example: "Do not protest, but sabotage them."
    "Talk quietly, but tell it to everyone."

    Prolepsis is an anticipated refutation. For example: "Some will think
    that they are only promises; they will say, others said the same thing, but
    no. We are different, we are Christians, we consider God a witness to our

    Preterition is an artifice, pretending discretion when something is
    said with total clarity and indiscretion. For example: "If I were not
    obligated to keep military secrets, I would tell all of you of the large
    amount of armaments that we have so that you would feel even more
    confidence that our victory is assured."

    Communication is a way to ask and give the answer to the same
    question. For example: "If they show disrespect for the ministers of God,
    will they respect us, simple citizens? Never."

    Rhetorical questions are a way in which one shows perplexity or
    inability to say something, only as an oratorical recourse. For example: "I
    am only a peasant and can tell you little. I know little and I will not be
    able to explain to you the complicated things of politics. Therefore, I
    talk to you with my heart, with my simple peasant's heart, as we all are."

    Litotes is a form of meaning a lot by saying little. For example: "The
    nine commanders have stolen little, just the whole country."

  24. #24
    Aktivan član kalama (avatar)
    Reputaciona moć

    Podrazumevano Re: Sta bi bilo... sta mislite da li je ovo izvodljivo!!!

    Irony consists of getting across exactly the opposite of what one is
    saying. For example: "The divine mobs that threaten and kill, they are
    indeed Christians."

    Amplification is presenting an idea from several angles. For example:
    "Political votes are the power of the people in a democracy. And economic
    votes are their power in the economy. Buying or not buying something, the
    majorities decide what should be produced. For something to be produced or
    to disappear. That is part of economic democracy."

    The most usual plaintive figures of speech are:

    Deprecation or entreaty to obtain something. For example: "Lord, free
    us from the yoke. Give us freedom."

    Imprecation or threat, expressing a sentiment in view of the unjust or
    hopeless. For example: "Let there be a Homeland for all or let there be a
    Homeland for no one."

    Conmination, similar to the previous one, presents a bad wish for the
    rest. For example, "Let them drown in the abyss of their own corruption."

    The apostrophe consists of addressing oneself towards something
    supernatural or inanimate as if it were a living being. For example:
    "Mountains of Nicaragua, make the seed of freedom grow."

    Interrogation consists of asking a question of oneself, to give
    greater emphasis to what is expressed. It is different from communication,
    since it gives the answer and is of a logical and not a plaintive nature.
    For example: "If they have already injured the members of my family, my
    friends, my peasant brothers, do I have any path other than brandishing a

    Reticence consists of leaving a thought incomplete, intentionally, so
    that mentally the audience completes it. For example, "They promised
    political pluralism and gave totalitarianism. They promised political
    pluralism and gave totalitarianism. They promised social justice, and they
    have increased poverty. They offered freedom of thought, and they have
    given censorship. Now, what they promise the world are free elections..."


    This completes the text of the CIA's manual and you are encouraged to
    upload other materials similar to this.

  25. #25
    Aktivan član kalama (avatar)
    Reputaciona moć

    Podrazumevano Re: Sta bi bilo... sta mislite da li je ovo izvodljivo!!!

    evo sad svi mozete da vidite na koje nacine nasi poznati "prijatelji" iz CIA sve navode da cine ono sto oni hoce.Nadam se da vam sve ovo sto ste procitali barem imalo razjasnjava komandni i logisticki sistem koji se na nasim prostorima namece iz vremena u vreme a da svi mislimo da se radi o navodnim OSLOBODIOCIMA

Slične teme

  1. Izvodljivo?
    Autor johnny_rover u forumu Operativni sistemi
    Odgovora: 13
    Poslednja poruka: 24.11.2008., 00:03
  2. Shta MiSliTe sta bi Bilo KAd bI bilo?
    Autor icabre u forumu Humor
    Odgovora: 28
    Poslednja poruka: 15.09.2007., 22:33
  3. SHta MISLIte O BIlo KOme S ODAVde??? :)
    Autor livija u forumu Arhiva
    Odgovora: 54
    Poslednja poruka: 13.10.2006., 08:54

Pravila za slanje poruka

  • Ne možete kreirati novu temu
  • Ne možete poslati odgovor
  • Ne možete dodati priloge
  • Ne možete prepraviti svoju poruku