Ovo je sa najnovije verzije Britannice, samo nekoliko dana stare. Znam da ovo i nije baš najbolja tema za politiku, ali s obzirom da je trenutno teško povezano s njom, kao i da je u pitanju politički čin ponovnog pisanja istorije Kosova, odgovara ovde:
Albanian Kosova, Serbian Kosovo i Metohija self-declared independent country in the Balkans region of Europe. Although the United States and several members of the European Union (EU) recognize Kosovo's independence, Serbia, Russia, and a number of other countries, including some in the EU, do not. For most of the 20th century, Kosovo was a part of Serbia, one of the constituent republics of Yugoslavia. By the end of the century, however, ethnic Albanians, not Serbs, constituted the bulk of the population. In 1998 a secessionist rebellion in Kosovo escalated into an international crisis, including an air bombardment of Yugoslavia (by then a rump of the former federal state, comprising only Serbia and Montenegro) by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in 1999. Following the restoration of peace, Kosovo was administered by the United Nations (UN) for nearly nine years, during which time Yugoslavia not only changed its name to Serbia and Montenegro but eventually separated into those independent states. Tensions between Kosovo and Serbia remained high throughout this period, and in February 2008 Kosovo formally declared independence. Area 4,203 square miles (10,887 square km). Pop. (2005 est.) 2,502,000.
Per-Anders Pettersson—Reportage/Getty Images
Kosovo is bordered by Serbia to the north and east, Macedonia to the south, Albania to the west, and Montenegro to the northwest. Its terrain consists largely of two intermontane basins. In the east the Kosovo Basin is drained by the northward-flowing Sitnica River, a tributary of the Ibar River. The principal cities in the basin are Priština—the capital and administrative centre—and Kosovska Mitrovica. In the west the Metohija Basin lies along the border with Albania, drained by the southward-flowing Beli Drim River; its principal cities are Pec and Prizren. Kosovo's mineral resources include lignite, asphalt, and nonferrous metals. Its soils are among the most fertile in the Balkans and support the cultivation of grains (wheat, barley, corn [maize]), fruits and vegetables, and such commercial crops as tobacco. However, Kosovo is one of the least-developed parts of the Balkans.
In the later Middle Ages the Kosovo region lay at the heart of the Serbian empire under the Nemanjic dynasty. Between the mid-12th and the mid-14th century the region was richly endowed with Eastern Orthodox monuments, such as the Decani Monastery (1327–35) with its more than 1,000 frescoes. (In 2004 the monastery was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site, and two years later the site was expanded to include several other monasteries—including Gracanica, with 14th-century frescoes, near Priština—and the Church of the Virgin of Ljeviša.)
In 1389, however, at the Battle of Kosovo fought just west of Priština, an army of the Turkish Ottoman Empire defeated a force of Serbs and their allies. By the mid-15th century the Turks had established direct rule over all of Serbia, including Kosovo. Kosovo had been populated by a mixture of Albanian and Slavic speakers since the 8th century. In the centuries following the Ottoman victory, a significant portion of Kosovo's Christian Serb inhabitants emigrated northward and westward to other territories, while many others converted to Islam. Following the defeat of an Austrian invasion in 1699, during which many Serbs sided with the invaders, many more Serbs joined the retreating Austrian army.
The ethnic balance of the region steadily changed in favour of Albanian speakers, and the abolition in 1766 of the Serbian Orthodox patriarchate at Pec substantially diminished the importance of Kosovo as a Serbian cultural centre. Nevertheless, Kosovo came to symbolize Serbia's golden age of national greatness. A tradition of epic poetry emerged, in which Kosovo represented Serbian national suffering and aspirations. At the same time, ethnic Albanians increasingly identified with the region, and by the late 19th century Prizren had become an important centre of Albanian culture and national consciousness.
Serbia, which had won independence from the Ottoman Empire early in the 19th century, regained control of Kosovo in 1912, and Kosovo entered the new Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes (later renamed Yugoslavia) in 1918 as a part of Serbia. In the 1920s and '30s, Serbia's attempts to resettle Serbs in Kosovo met with resistance from local ethnic Albanians. During World War II, Kosovo was briefly united with neighbouring Albania under Italian patronage. Toward the end of the war, however, Yugoslavia's new communist government crushed a revolt in Kosovo by ethnic Albanians who wanted to unite with Albania. The postwar government of the new federal Yugoslavia granted Kosovo the status of an autonomous region (and later autonomous province) within the republic of Serbia, but it also continued to suppress nationalist sentiments among the region's Albanians.
From the mid-1960s the Yugoslav government followed a more tolerant policy of encouraging Albanian national identity and enabling Albanians to advance in the provincial and federal administrations. This Albanization of the province was also stimulated by the rapid departure of Serbs to urban areas. As a result of Serbian migration and higher Albanian birth rates, the Albanian share of the population rose from half in 1946 to three-fourths in 1981 and to four-fifths in 1991, by which time the proportion of Serbs had fallen to about one-tenth.
Under the Yugoslav constitution enacted in 1974, Kosovo's status as an autonomous province was that of a republic in all but name. Sharp rises in international energy prices in 1973 and 1979, however, placed growing strain on the Yugoslav economy, and conflict deepened among republics over the issue of aid to underdeveloped regions. There was serious civil disorder in the province during 1981.